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Die Mitgliedstaaten wurden daher gebeten, die Codelisten-Werte in die nationalen Sprachen zu übersetzen, so dass die Übersetzungen in der INSPIRE Registry genutzt werden können.

Bitte tragen Sie die Übersetzungen für die Codeliste-Werte direkt in die angehängte Excel-Tabelle ein. Vielen Dank für Ihre Unterstützung!

 

Geologie

Code listCodeParent_valueEN_labelEN_definitionEN_descriptionDE_labelDE_definitionDE_description
EnvironmentValuemarine marineAn environment with marine waterSea or coastal salty waters.
EnvironmentValuefreshWater fresh WaterAn environment with fresh waterRivers and inland lakes, with fresh water, not salty.
EnvironmentValuebrackishWater brackish WaterAn environment with a brackish water typeA water environment with characteristics in between marine water and fresh water.
EventEnvironmentValueabandonedRiverChannelSettingriverPlainSystemSettingabandoned river channel settingA drainage channel along which runoff no longer occurs, as on an alluvial fan.
EventEnvironmentValueaboveCarbonateCompensationDepthSettingmarineSettingabove carbonate compensation depth settingMarine environment in which carbonate sediment does not dissolve before reaching the sea floor and can accumulate.
EventEnvironmentValueabyssalSettingmarineSettingabyssal settingThe ocean environment at water depths between 3,500 and 6,000 metres.The Abyssal zone is a part of the deep sea floor that exhibits a uniform fauna and is generally noted for its lack of nutrients, high oxygen content, and almost total lack of sunlight. The zone is characterized by continuously cold waters of approximately
EventEnvironmentValueactiveContinentalMarginSettingplateMarginSettingactive continental margin settingPlate margin setting on continental crust.
EventEnvironmentValueactiveSpreadingCenterSettingplateMarginSettingactive spreading center settingDivergent plate margin at which new oceanic crust is being formed.
EventEnvironmentValueaeolianProcessSettingsubaerialSettingaeolian process settingSedimentary setting in which wind is the dominant process producing, transporting, and depositing sediment. Typically has low-relief plain or piedmont slope physiography.
EventEnvironmentValueagriculturalAndForestryLandSetting agricultural and forestry land settingHuman influence setting with intensive agricultural activity or forestry land use, including forest plantations.
EventEnvironmentValuealgalFlatSettinglowEnergyShorelineSettingalgal flat settingModern "algal flats are found on rock or mud in areas flooded only by the highest tides and are often subject to high evaporation rates. Algal flats survive only when an area is salty enough to eliminate snails and other herbivorous animals that eat algae, yet is not so salty that the algae cannot survive. The most common species of algae found on algal flats are blue-green algae of the genera Scytonema and Schizothrix. These algae can tolerate the daily extremes in temperature and oxygen that typify conditions on the flats. Other plants sometimes found on algal flats include one-celled green algae, flagellates, diatoms, bacteria, and isolated scrubby red and black mangroves, as well as patches of saltwort. Animals include false cerith, cerion snails, fiddler crabs, and great land crabs. Flats with well developed algal mats are restricted for the most part to the Keys, with Sugarloaf and Crane Keys offering prime examples of algal flat habitat." (Audubon, 1991)
EventEnvironmentValuealluvialFanSettingpiedmontSlopeSystemSettingalluvial fan settingA low, outspread, relatively flat to gently sloping mass of loose rock material, shaped like an open fan or a segment of a cone, deposited by a stream (esp. in a semiarid region) at the place where it issues from a narrow mountain valley upon a plain or broad valley, or where a tributary stream is near or at its junction with the main stream, or wherever a constriction in a valley abruptly ceases or the gradient of the stream suddenly decreases; it is steepest near the mouth of the valley where its apex points upstream, and it slopes gently and convexly outward with gradually decreasing gradient.
EventEnvironmentValuealluvialPlainSettingpiedmontSlopeSystemSettingalluvial plain settingAn assemblage landforms produced by alluvial and fluvial processes (braided streams, terraces, etc.,) that form low gradient, regional ramps along the flanks of mountains and extend great distances from their sources (e.g., High Plains of North America). (NRCS GLOSSARY OF LANDFORM AND GEOLOGIC TERMS). A level or gently sloping tract or a slightly undulating land surface produced by extensive deposition of alluvium... Synonym-- wash plain;...river plain; aggraded valley plain;... (Jackson, 1997, p. 17). May include one or more River plain systems.
EventEnvironmentValueanoxicSettingearthSurfaceSettinganoxic settingSetting depleted in oxygen, typically subaqueous.
EventEnvironmentValuearidOrSemiAridEnvironmentSettingearthSurfaceSettingarid or Semi Arid environment settingSetting characterized by mean annual precipitation of 10 inches (25 cm) or less. (Jackson, 1997, p. 172). Equivalent to SLTT 'Desert setting', but use 'Arid' to emphasize climatic nature of setting definition.
EventEnvironmentValuebackArcSettingtectonicallyDefinedSettingback arc settingTectonic setting adjacent to a volcanic arc formed above a subduction zone. The back arc setting is on the opposite side of the volcanic arc from the trench at which oceanic crust is consumed in a subduction zone. Back arc setting includes terrane that is affected by plate margin and arc-related processes.
EventEnvironmentValuebackreefSettingbiologicalReefSettingbackreef settingThe landward side of a reef. The term is often used adjectivally to refer to deposits within the restricted lagoon behind a barrier reef, such as the "back-reef facies" of lagoonal deposits. In some places, as on a platform-edge reef tract, "back reef" refers to the side of the reef away from the open sea, even though no land may be nearby.
EventEnvironmentValuebarrierBeachSettingbarrierIslandCoastlineSettingbarrier beach settingA narrow, elongate sand or gravel ridge rising slightly above the high-tide level and extending generally parallel with the shore, but separated from it by a lagoon (Shepard, 1954, p.1904), estuary, or marsh; it is extended by longshore transport and is rarely more than several kilometers long.
EventEnvironmentValuebarrierIslandCoastlineSettingshorelineSettingbarrier island coastline settingSetting meant to include all the various geographic elements typically associated with a barrier island coastline, including the barrier islands, and geomorphic/geographic elements that are linked by processes associated with the presence of the island (e.g. wash over fans, inlet channel, back barrier lagoon).
EventEnvironmentValuebarrierLagoonSettingbarrierIslandCoastlineSettingbarrier lagoon settingA lagoon that is roughly parallel to the coast and is separated from the open ocean by a strip of land or by a barrier reef. Tidal influence is typically restricted and the lagoon is commonly hypersaline.
EventEnvironmentValuebasinBogSettingbogSettingbasin bog settingAn ombrotrophic or ombrogene peat/bog whose nutrient supply is exclusively from rain water (including snow and atmospheric fallout) therefore making nutrients extremely oligotrophic.
EventEnvironmentValuebasinPlainSettingmarineSettingbasin plain settingNear flat areas of ocean floor, slope less than 1:1000; generally receive only distal turbidite and pelagic sediments.
EventEnvironmentValuebathyalSettingmarineSettingbathyal settingThe ocean environment at water depths between 200 and 3500 metres.
EventEnvironmentValuebeachSettingshorelineSettingbeach settingThe unconsolidated material at the shoreline that covers a gently sloping zone, typically with a concave profile, extending landward from the low-water line to the place where there is a definite change in material or physiographic form (such as a cliff), or to the line of permanent vegetation (usually the effective limit of the highest storm waves); at the shore of a body of water, formed and washed by waves or tides, usually covered by sand or gravel, and lacking a bare rocky surface.
EventEnvironmentValuebelowCarbonateCompensationDepthSettingmarineSettingbelow carbonate compensation depth settingMarine environment in which water is deep enough that carbonate sediment goes into solution before it can accumulate on the sea floor.
EventEnvironmentValuebiologicalReefSettingmarineSettingbiological reef settingA ridgelike or moundlike structure, layered or massive, built by sedentary calcareous organisms, esp. corals, and consisting mostly of their remains; it is wave-resistant and stands topographically above the surrounding contemporaneously deposited sediment.
EventEnvironmentValueblanketBogbogSettingblanket bogTopogeneous bog/peat whose moisture content is largely dependent on surface water. It is relatively rich in plant nutrients, nitrogen, and mineral matter, is mildly acidic to nearly neutral, and contains little or no cellulose; forms in topographic depressions with essential stagnat or non-moving minerotrophic water supply
EventEnvironmentValuebogSettingterrestrialSettingbog settingWaterlogged, spongy ground, consisting primarily of mosses, containing acidic, decaying vegetation that may develop into peat.
EventEnvironmentValuebraidedRiverChannelSettingriverChannelSettingbraided river channel settingA stream that divides into or follows an interlacing or tangled network of several small branching and reuniting shallow channels separated from each other by ephemeral branch islands or channel bars, resembling in plan the strands of a complex braid. Such a stream is generally believed to indicate an inability to carry all of its load, such as an overloaded and aggrading stream flowing in a wide channel on a floodplain.
EventEnvironmentValuecarbonateDominatedShorelineSettingshorelineSettingcarbonate dominated shoreline settingA shoreline setting in which terrigenous input is minor compared to local carbonate sediment production. Constructional biogenic activity is an important element in geomorphic development.
EventEnvironmentValuecarbonateShelfSetting carbonate shelf settingA type of carbonate platform that is attached to a continental landmass and a region of sedimentation that is analogous to shelf environments for terrigenous clastic deposition. A carbonate shelf may receive some supply of material from the adjacent landmass.
EventEnvironmentValuecaveSettingearthSurfaceSettingcave settingA natural underground open space; it generally has a connection to the surface, is large enough for a person to enter, and extends into darkness. The most common type of cave is formed in limestone by dissolution.
EventEnvironmentValuecoastalDuneFieldSettingdunefieldSettingcoastal dune field settingA dune field on low-lying land recently abandoned or built up by the sea; the dunes may ascend a cliff and travel inland.
EventEnvironmentValuecoastalPlainSettingshorelineSettingcoastal plain settingA low relief plain bordering a water body extending inland to the nearest elevated land, sloping very gently towards the water body. Distinguished from alluvial plain by presence of relict shoreline-related deposits or morphology.
EventEnvironmentValuecollisionalSettingcontinentalCrustalSettingcollisional settingectonic setting in which two continental crustal plates impact and are sutured together after intervening oceanic crust is entirely consumed at a subduction zone separating the plates. Such collision typically involves major mountain forming events, exemplified by the modern Alpine and Himalayan mountain chains.
EventEnvironmentValuecontactMetamorphicSettingearthInteriorSettingcontact metamorphic settingMetamorphism of country rock at the contact of an igneous body.
EventEnvironmentValuecontinentalBorderlandSettingmarineSettingcontinental borderland settingAn area of the continental margin between the shoreline and the continental slope that is topographically more complex than the continental shelf. It is characterized by ridges and basins, some of which are below the depth of the continental shelf. An example is the southern California continental borderland (Jackson, 1997, p. 138).
EventEnvironmentValuecontinentalCrustalSettingcrustalSettingcontinental-crustal settingThat type of the Earth's crust which underlies the continents and the continental shelves; it is equivalent to the sial and continental sima and ranges in thickness from about 25 km to more than 70 km under mountain ranges, averaging ~40 km. The density of the continental crust averages ~2.8 g/cm3 and is ~2.7 g.cm3 in the upper layer. The velocities of compressional seismic waves through it average ~6.5 km/s and are less than ~7.0 km/sec.
EventEnvironmentValuecontinentalRiftSettingextendedTerraneSettingcontinental rift settingExtended terrane in a zone of continental breakup, may include incipient oceanic crust. Examples include Red Sea, East Africa Rift, Salton Trough.
EventEnvironmentValuecontinentalShelfSettingmarineSettingcontinental shelf settingThat part of the ocean floor that is between the shoreline and the continental slope (or, when there is no noticeable continental slope, a depth of 200 m). It is characterized by its gentle slope of 0.1 degree (Jackson, 1997, p. 138). Continental shelves have a classic shoreline-shelf-slope profile termed 'clinoform'.
EventEnvironmentValuecrustalSettingearthInteriorSettingcrustal settingThe outermost layer or shell of the Earth, defined according to various criteria, including seismic velocity, density and composition; that part of the Earth above the Mohorovicic discontinuity, made up of the sial and the sima.
EventEnvironmentValuecutoffMeanderSettingriverPlainSystemSettingcutoff meander settingThe abandoned, bow- or horseshoe-shaped channel of a former meander, left when the stream formed a cutoff across a narrow meander neck. Note that these are typically lakes, thus also lacustrine.
EventEnvironmentValuedeepSeaTrenchSettingmarineSettingdeep sea trench settingDeep ocean basin with steep (average 10 degrees) slope toward land, more gentle slope (average 5 degrees) towards the sea, and abundant seismic activity on landward side of trench. Does not denote water depth, but may be very deep.
EventEnvironmentValuedeltaDistributaryChannelSettingdeltaicSystemSettingdelta distributary channel settingA divergent stream flowing away from the main stream and not returning to it, as in a delta or on an alluvial plain.
EventEnvironmentValuedeltaDistributaryMouthSettingdeltaicSystemSettingdelta distributary mouth settingThe mouth of a delta distributary channel where fluvial discharge moves from confined to unconfined flow conditions.
EventEnvironmentValuedeltaFrontSettingdeltaicSystemSettingdelta front settingA narrow zone where deposition in deltas is most active, consisting of a continuous sheet of sand, and occurring within the effective depth of wave erosion (10 m or less). It is the zone separating the prodelta from the delta plain, and it may or may not be steep"
EventEnvironmentValuedeltaicSystemSettingearthSurfaceSettingdeltaic system settingEnvironments at the mouth of a river or stream that enters a standing body of water (ocean or lake). The delta forms a triangular or fan-shaped plain of considerable area. Subaerial parts of the delta are crossed by many distributaries of the main river,
EventEnvironmentValuedeltaPlainSettingdeltaicSystemSettingdelta plain settingThe level or nearly level surface composing the landward part of a large or compound delta; strictly, an alluvial plain characterized by repeated channel bifurcation and divergence, multiple distributary channels, and interdistributary flood basins.
EventEnvironmentValuedeltaSlopeSetting delta slope settingSlope setting within the deltaic system.
EventEnvironmentValuedunefieldSettingaeolianProcessSettingdunefield settingExtensive deposits on sand in an area where the supply is abundant. As a characteristic, individual dunes somewhat resemble barchans but are highly irregular in shape and crowded; erg areas of the Sahara are an example.
EventEnvironmentValuedustAccumulationSettingaeolianProcessSettingdust accumulation settingSetting in which finegrained particles accumulate, e.g. loess deposition.
EventEnvironmentValuedwellingAreaSetting dwelling area settingDwelling area setting.
EventEnvironmentValueenglacialSettingglacierRelatedSettingenglacial settingContained, embedded, or carried within the body of a glacier or ice sheet; said of meltwater streams, till, drift, moraine.
EventEnvironmentValueepicontinentalMarineSettingmarineSettingepicontinental marine settingMarine setting situated within the interior of the continent, rather than at the edge of a continent.
EventEnvironmentValueestuarineDeltaSettingdeltaicSystemSettingestuarine delta settingA delta that has filled, or is in the process of filling, an estuary.
EventEnvironmentValueestuarineLagoonSettingestuarySettingestuarine lagoon settingA lagoon produced by the temporary sealing of a river estuary by a storm barrier. Such lagoons are usually seasonal and exist until the river breaches the barrier; they occur in regions of low or spasmodic rainfall.
EventEnvironmentValueestuarySettingshorelineSettingestuary settingEnvironments at the seaward end or the widened funnel-shaped tidal mouth of a river valley where fresh water comes into contact with seawater and where tidal effects are evident (adapted from Glossary of Geology, Jackson, 1997, p. 217).
EventEnvironmentValueextendedTerraneSettingtectonicallyDefinedSettingextended terrane settingTectonic setting characterized by extension of the upper crust, manifested by formation of rift valleys or basin and range physiography, with arrays of low to high angle normal faults. Modern examples include the North Sea, East Africa, and the Basin and Range of the North American Cordillera. Typically applied in continental crustal settings.
EventEnvironmentValuefanDeltaSetting fan delta settingA debris-flow or sheetflood-dominated alluvial fan build out into a lake or the sea.
EventEnvironmentValuefastSpreadingCenterSettingactiveSpreadingCenterSettingfast spreading center settingSpreading center at which the opening rate is greater than 100 mm per year.
EventEnvironmentValuefloodplainSettingriverPlainSystemSettingfloodplain settingThe surface or strip of relatively smooth land adjacent to a river channel, constructed by the present river in its existing regimen and covered with water when the river overflows its banks. It is built of alluvium carried by the river during floods and deposited in the sluggish water beyond the influence of the swiftest current. A river has one floodplain and may have one or more terraces representing abandoned floodplains.
EventEnvironmentValueforearcSettingplateMarginSettingforearc settingTectonic setting between a subduction-related trench and a volcanic arc.
EventEnvironmentValueforelandSettingcontinentalCrustalSettingforeland settingThe exterior area of an orogenic belt where deformation occurs without significant metamorphism. Generally the foreland is closer to the continental interior than other portions of the orogenic belt are.
EventEnvironmentValueforereefSettingbiologicalReefSettingforereef settingThe seaward side of a reef; the slope covered with deposits of coarse reef talus.
EventEnvironmentValueforeshore foreshoreA foreshore is the region between mean high water and mean low water marks of the tides. Depending on the tidal range this may be a vertical distance of anything from a few tens of centimetres to many meters.
EventEnvironmentValuegibberPlainSettingaridOrSemiAridEnvironmentSettinggibber plain settingA desert plain strewn with wind-abraded pebbles, or gibbers; a gravelly desert.
EventEnvironmentValueglacialOutwashPlainSettingglacierRelatedSettingglacial outwash plain settingA broad, gently sloping sheet of outwash deposited by meltwater streams flowing in front of or beyond a glacier, and formed by coalescing outwahs fans; the surface of a broad body of outwash.
EventEnvironmentValueglacierLateralSettingglacierRelatedSettingglacier lateral settingSettings adjacent to edges of confined glacier.
EventEnvironmentValueglacierRelatedSettingearthSurfaceSettingglacier related settingEarth surface setting with geography defined by spatial relationship to glaciers (e.g. on top of a glacier, next to a glacier, in front of a glacier...). Processes related to moving ice dominate sediment transport and deposition and landform development.
EventEnvironmentValueglacierTerminusSettingproglacialSettingglacier terminus settingRegion of sediment deposition at the glacier terminus due to melting of glacier ice, melt-out, ablation and flow till setting.
EventEnvironmentValueglaciofluvialSetting glaciofluvial settingA setting influenced by glacial meltwater streams. This setting can be sub- en-, supra- and proglacial.
EventEnvironmentValueglaciolacustrineSetting glaciolacustrine settingIce margin lakes and other lakes related to glaciers. Where meltwater streams enter the lake, sands and gravels are deposited in deltas. At the lake floor, typivally rhythmites (varves) are deposited.Ice margin lakes and other lakes related to glaciers.
EventEnvironmentValueglaciomarineSetting glaciomarine settingA marine environment influenced by glaciers. Dropstone diamictons and dropstone muds are typical deposits in this environment.
EventEnvironmentValuegraben grabenAn elongate trough or basin, bounded on both sides by high-angle normal faults that dip toward one another. It is a structual form that may or may not be geomorphologically expressed as a rift valley.
EventEnvironmentValuehadalSettingmarineSettinghadal settingThe deepest oceanic environment, i.e., over 6,000 m in depth. Always in deep sea trench.
EventEnvironmentValuehalfGraben half-grabenA elongate , asymmetric trough or basin bounded on one side by a normal fault.
EventEnvironmentValuehighPressureLowTemperatureEarthInteriorSettingearthInteriorSettinghigh pressure low temperature Earth interior settingHigh pressure environment characterized by geothermal gradient significantly lower than standard continental geotherm; environment in which blueschist facies metamorphic rocks form. Typically associated with subduction zones.
EventEnvironmentValuehillslopeSettingearthSurfaceSettinghillslope settingEarth surface setting characterized by surface slope angles high enough that gravity alone becomes a significant factor in geomorphic development, as well as base-of-slope areas influenced by hillslope processes. Hillslope activities include creep, sliding, slumping, falling, and other downslope movements caused by slope collapse induced by gravitational influence on earth materials. May be subaerial or subaqueous.
EventEnvironmentValuehinterlandTectonicSettingcontinentalCrustalSettinghinterland tectonic settingTectonic setting in the internal part of an orogenic belt, characterized by plastic deformation of rocks accompanied by significant metamorphism, typically involving crystalline basement rocks. Typically denotes the most structurally thickened part of an orogenic belt, between a magmatic arc or collision zone and a more 'external' foreland setting.
EventEnvironmentValuehotSpotSettingtectonicallyDefinedSettinghot spot settingSetting in a zone of high heat flow from the mantle. Typically identified in intraplate settings, but hot spot may also interact with active plate margins (Iceland...). Includes surface manifestations like volcanic center, but also includes crust and mantle manifestations as well.
EventEnvironmentValuehumanEnvironmentSetting human environment settingHuman environment setting.
EventEnvironmentValuehumidTemperateClimaticSettingearthSurfaceSettinghumid temperate climatic settingSetting with seasonal climate having hot to cold or humid to arid seasons.
EventEnvironmentValuehumidTropicalClimaticSettingearthSurfaceSettinghumid tropical climatic settingSetting with hot, humid climate influenced by equatorial air masses, no winter season.
EventEnvironmentValuehypabyssalSettingearthInteriorSettinghypabyssal settingIgneous environment close to the Earth's surface, characterized by more rapid cooling than plutonic setting to produce generally fine-grained intrusive igneous rock that is commonly associated with co-magmatic volcanic rocks.
EventEnvironmentValueinactiveSpreadingCenterSettingintraplateTectonicSettinginactive spreading center settingSetting on oceanic crust formed at a spreading center that has been abandoned.
EventEnvironmentValueinnerNeriticSettingneriticSettinginner neritic settingThe ocean environment at depths between low tide level and 30 metres.
EventEnvironmentValueinterdistributaryBaySettingdeltaicSystemSettinginterdistributary bay settingA pronounced indentation of the delta front between advancing stream distributaries, occupied by shallow water, and either open to the sea or partly enclosed by minor distributaries.
EventEnvironmentValueintertidalSettingsubaqueousSettingintertidal settingPertaining to the benthic ocean environment or depth zone between high water and low water; also, pertaining to the organisms of that environment.
EventEnvironmentValueintracratonicSetting intracratonic settingA basin formed within the interior region of a continent, away from plate boundaries.
EventEnvironmentValueintraplateTectonicSettingtectonicallyDefinedSettingintraplate tectonic settingTectonically stable setting far from any active plate margins.
EventEnvironmentValuelacustrineDeltaSettingdeltaicSystemSettinglacustrine delta settingThe low, nearly flat, alluvial tract of land at or near the mouth of a river, commonly forming a triangular or fan-shaped plain of considerable area, crossed by many distributaries of the main river, perhaps extending beyond the general trend of the lake shore, resulting from the accumulation of sediment supplied by the river in such quantities that it is not removed by waves or currents. Most deltas are partly subaerial and partly below water.
EventEnvironmentValuelacustrineSettingterrestrialSettinglacustrine settingSetting associated with a lake. Always overlaps with terrestrial, may overlap with subaerial, subaqueous, or shoreline.
EventEnvironmentValuelagoonalSettingshorelineSettinglagoonal settingA shallow stretch of salt or brackish water, partly or completely separated from a sea or lake by an offshore reef, barrier island, sand or spit (Jackson, 1997). Water is shallow, tidal and wave-produced effects on sediments; strong light reaches sediment.
EventEnvironmentValuelandReclamationSetting land reclamation settingHuman influence setting making land capable of more intensive use by changing its general character, as by drainage of excessively wet land, irrigation of arid or semiarid land; or recovery of submerged land from seas, lakes and rivers, restoration after human-induced degradation by removing toxic substances.
EventEnvironmentValuelowEnergyShorelineSettingshorelineSettinglow energy shoreline settingSettings characterized by very low surface slope and proximity to shoreline. Generally within peritidal setting, but characterized by low surface gradients and generally low-energy sedimentary processes.
EventEnvironmentValuelowerBathyalSettingbathyalSettinglower bathyal settingThe ocean environment at depths between 1000 and 3500 metres.
EventEnvironmentValuelowerContinentalCrustalSettingcontinentalCrustalSettinglower continental-crustal settingContinental crustal setting characterized by upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism, in situ melting, residual anhydrous metamorphic rocks, and ductile flow of rock bodies.
EventEnvironmentValuelowerDeltaPlainSettingdeltaPlainSettinglower delta plain settingThe part of a delta plain which is penetrated by saline water and is subject to tidal processes.
EventEnvironmentValuelowerMantleSettingmantleSettinglower mantle settingThat part of the mantle that lies below a depth of about 660 km. With increasing depth, density increases from ~4.4 g/cm3 to ~5.6 g/cm3, and velocity of compressional seismic waves increases from ~10.7 km/s to ~13.7 km/s (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981).
EventEnvironmentValuelowerOceanicCrustalSettingoceanicCrustalSettinglower oceanic-crustal settingSetting characterized by dominantly intrusive mafic rocks, with sheeted dike complexes in upper part and gabbroic to ultramafic intrusive or metamorphic rocks in lower part.
EventEnvironmentValuelowPressureHighTemperatureSettingearthInteriorSettinglow pressure high temperature settingSetting characterized by temperatures significantly higher that those associated with normal continental geothermal gradient.
EventEnvironmentValuemantleSettingearthInteriorSettingmantle settingThe zone of the Earth below the crust and above the core, which is divided into the upper mantle and the lower mantle, with a transition zone separating them.
EventEnvironmentValuemarginalMarineSabkhaSettingaridOrSemiAridEnvironmentSettingmarginal marine sabkha settingSetting characterized by arid to semi-arid conditions on restricted coastal plains mostly above normal high tide level, with evaporite-saline mineral, tidal-flood, and eolian deposits. Boundaries with intertidal setting and non-tidal terrestrial setting are gradational. (Jackson, 1997, p. 561).
EventEnvironmentValuemarineCarbonatePlatformSettingmarineSettingmarine carbonate platform settingA shallow submerged plateau separated from continental landmasses, on which high biological carbonate production rates produce enough sediment to maintain the platform surface near sea level. Grades into atoll as area becomes smaller and ringing coral reefs become more prominent part of the setting.
EventEnvironmentValuemarineSettingsubaqueousSettingmarine settingSetting characterized by location under the surface of the sea.
EventEnvironmentValuemeanderingRiverChannelSettingriverChannelSettingmeandering river channel settingProduced by a mature stream swinging from side to side as it flows across its floodplain or shifts its course laterally toward the convex side of an original curve.
EventEnvironmentValuemediumRateSpreadingCenterSettingactiveSpreadingCenterSettingmedium-rate spreading center settingSpreading center at which the opening rate is between 50 and 100 mm per year.
EventEnvironmentValuemiddleBathyalSettingbathyalSettingmiddle bathyal settingThe ocean environment at water depths between 600 and 1000 metres.
EventEnvironmentValuemiddleContinentalCrustSettingcontinentalCrustalSettingmiddle continental crust settingContinental crustal setting characterized by greenschist to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism, plutonic igneous rocks, and ductile deformation.
EventEnvironmentValuemiddleNeriticSettingneriticSettingmiddle neritic settingThe ocean environment at depths between 30 and 100 metres.
EventEnvironmentValuemidOceanRidgeSettingoceanHighlandSettingmid ocean ridge settingOcean highland associated with a divergent continental margin (spreading center). Setting is characterized by active volcanism, locally steep relief, hydrothermal activity, and pelagic sedimentation.
EventEnvironmentValueminingAreaSetting mining area settingHuman influence setting in which mineral resources are extracted from the ground.
EventEnvironmentValuemudFlatSettinglowEnergyShorelineSettingmud flat settingA relatively level area of fine grained material (e.g. silt) along a shore (as in a sheltered estuary or chenier-plain) or around an island, alternately covered and uncovered by the tide or covered by shallow water, and barren of vegetation. Includes most tidal flats, but lacks denotation of tidal influence.
EventEnvironmentValueneriticSettingmarineSettingneritic settingThe ocean environment at depths between low-tide level and 200 metres, or between low-tide level and approximately the edge of the continental shelf.
EventEnvironmentValueoceanHighlandSettingmarineSettingocean highland settingBroad category for subaqueous marine settings characterized by significant relief above adjacent sea floor.
EventEnvironmentValueoceanicCrustalSettingcrustalSettingoceanic-crustal settingThat type of the Earth's crust which underlies the ocean basins. The oceanic crust is 5-10 km thick; it has a density of 2.9 g/cm3, and compressional seismic-wave velocities travelling through it at 4-7.2 km/sec. Setting in crust produced by submarine volcanism at a mid ocean ridge.
EventEnvironmentValueoceanicPlateauSettingoceanHighlandSettingoceanic plateau settingRegion of elevated ocean crust that commonly rises to within 2-3 km of the surface above an abyssal sea floor that lies several km deeper. Climate and water depths are such that a marine carbonate platform does not develop.
EventEnvironmentValueouterNeriticSettingneriticSettingouter neritic settingThe ocean environment at depths between 100 meters and approximately the edge of the continental shelf or between 100 and 200 meters.
EventEnvironmentValuepassiveContinentalMarginSettingtectonicallyDefinedSettingpassive continental margin settingBoundary of continental crust into oceanic crust of an oceanic basin that is not a subduction zone or transform fault system. Generally is rifted margin formed when ocean basin was initially formed.
EventEnvironmentValuepedimentSettingpiedmontSlopeSystemSettingpediment settingA gently sloping erosional surface developed at the foot of a receding hill or mountain slope. The surface may be essentially bare, exposing earth material that extends beneath adjacent uplands; or it may be thinly mantled with alluvium and colluvium, ultimately in transit from upland front to basin or valley lowland. In hill-foot slope terrain the mantle is designated "pedisediment." The term has been used in several geomorphic contexts: Pediments may be classed with respect to (a) landscape positions, for example, intermontane-basin piedmont or valley-border footslope surfaces (respectively, apron and terrace pediments (Cooke and Warren, 1973)); (b) type of material eroded, bedrock or regolith; or (c) combinations of the above. compare - Piedmont slope.
EventEnvironmentValuepiedmontSlopeSystemSettingsubaerialSettingpiedmont slope system settingLocation on gentle slope at the foot of a mountain; generally used in terms of intermontane-basin terrain. Main components include: (a) An erosional surface on bedrock adjacent to the receding mountain front (pediment, rock pediment); (b) A constructional surface comprising individual alluvial fans and interfan valleys, also near the mountain front; and (c) A distal complex of coalescent fans (bajada), and alluvial slopes without fan form. Piedmont slopes grade to basin-floor depressions with alluvial and temporary lake plains or to surfaces associated with through drainage.
EventEnvironmentValueplateMarginSettingtectonicallyDefinedSettingplate margin settingTectonic setting at the boundary between two tectonic plates.
EventEnvironmentValueplateSpreadingCenterSettingtectonicallyDefinedSettingplate spreading center settingTectonic setting where new oceanic crust is being or has been formed at a divergent plate boundary. Includes active and inactive spreading centers.
EventEnvironmentValueplayaSettingaridOrSemiAridEnvironmentSettingplaya settingThe usually dry and nearly level plain that occupies the lowest parts of closed depressions, such as those occurring on intermontane basin floors. Temporary flooding occurs primarily in response to precipitation-runoff events.
EventEnvironmentValuepolarClimaticSettingearthSurfaceSettingpolar climatic settingSetting with climate dominated by temperatures below the freezing temperature of water. Includes polar deserts because precipitation is generally scant at high latitude. Climatically controlled by arctic air masses, cold dry environment with short summer.
EventEnvironmentValueprodeltaSettingdeltaicSystemSettingprodelta settingThe part of a delta that is below the effective depth of wave erosion, lying beyond the delta front, and sloping gently down to the floor of the basin into which the delta is advancing and where clastic river sediment ceases to be a significant part of the basin-floor deposits; it is entirely below the water level.
EventEnvironmentValueproglacialSettingglacierRelatedSettingproglacial settingImmediately in front of or just beyond the outer limits of a glacier or ice sheet, generally at or near its lower end; said of lakes, streams, deposits, and other features produced by or derived from the glacier ice.
EventEnvironmentValuereefFlatSettingbiologicalReefSettingreef flat settingA stony platform of reef rock, landward of the reef crest at or above the low tide level, occasionally with patches of living coral and associated organisms, and commonly strewn with coral fragments and coral sand.
EventEnvironmentValueregionalMetamorphicSettingearthInteriorSettingregional metamorphic settingMetamorphism not obviously localized along contacts of igneous bodies; includes burial metamorphism and ocean ridge metamorphism.
EventEnvironmentValueriverChannelSettingriverPlainSystemSettingriver channel settingThe bed where a natural body of surface water flows or may flow; a natural passageway or depression of perceptible extent containing continuously or periodically flowing water, or forming a connecting link between two bodies of water; a watercourse.
EventEnvironmentValueriverPlainSystemSettingterrestrialSettingriver plain system settingGeologic setting dominated by a river system; river plains may occur in any climatic setting. Includes active channels, abandoned channels, levees, oxbow lakes, flood plain. May be part of an alluvial plain that includes terraces composed of abandoned river plain deposits.
EventEnvironmentValuerockyCoastSettingshorelineSettingrocky coast settingShoreline with significant relief and abundant rock outcrop.
EventEnvironmentValuesaltPan salt panA small, undrained, shallow depression in which water accumulates and evaporates, leaving a salt deposit.
EventEnvironmentValuesandPlainSettingaeolianProcessSettingsand plain settingA sand-covered plain dominated by aeolian processes.
EventEnvironmentValueseamountSettingintraplateTectonicSettingseamount settingSetting that consists of a conical mountain on the ocean floor (guyot). Typically characterized by active volcanism, pelagic sedimentation. If the mountain is high enough to reach the photic zone, carbonate production may result in reef building to produce a carbonate platform or atoll setting.
EventEnvironmentValueshorelineSettingearthSurfaceSettingshoreline settingGeologic settings characterized by location adjacent to the ocean or a lake. A zone of indefinite width (may be many kilometers), bordering a body of water that extends from the water line inland to the first major change in landform features. Includes settings that may be subaerial, intermittently subaqueous, or shallow subaqueous, but are intrinsically associated with the interface between land areas and water bodies.
EventEnvironmentValueslopeRiseSettingmarineSettingslope-rise settingThe part of a subaqueous basin that is between a bordering shelf setting, which separate the basin from an adjacent landmass, and a very low-relief basin plain setting.
EventEnvironmentValueslowSpreadingCenterSettingactiveSpreadingCenterSettingslow spreading center settingSpreading center at which the opening rate is less than 50 mm per year.
EventEnvironmentValuespringSettingriverPlainSystemSettingspring settingSetting characterized by a place where groundwater flows naturally from a rock or the soil onto the land surface or into a water body.
EventEnvironmentValuestrandplainSettingshorelineSettingstrandplain settingA prograded shore built seaward by waves and currents, and continuous for some distance along the coast. It is characterized by subparallel beach ridges and swales, in places with associated dunes.
EventEnvironmentValuesubaerialSettingearthSurfaceSettingsubaerial settingSetting at the interface between the solid earth and the atmosphere, includes some shallow subaqueous settings in river channels and playas. Characterized by conditions and processes, such as erosion, that exist or operate in the open air on or immediately adjacent to the land surface.
EventEnvironmentValuesubaqueousSettingearthSurfaceSettingsubaqueous settingSetting situated in or under permanent, standing water. Used for marine and lacustrine settings, but not for fluvial settings.
EventEnvironmentValuesubductionZoneSettingplateMarginSettingsubduction zone settingTectonic setting at which a tectonic plate, usually oceanic, is moving down into the mantle beneath another overriding plate.
EventEnvironmentValuesubglacialSettingglacierRelatedSettingsubglacial settingFormed or accumulated in or by the bottom parts of a glacier or ice sheet; said of meltwater streams, till, moraine, etc.
EventEnvironmentValuesubmarineFanSettingmarineSettingsubmarine fan settingLarge fan-shaped cones of sediment on the ocean floor, generally associated with submarine canyons that provide sediment supply to build the fan.
EventEnvironmentValuesupraglacialSettingglacierRelatedSettingsupraglacial setting"Carried upon, deposited from, or pertaining to the top surface of a glacier or ice sheet; said of meltwater streams, till, drift, etc. " (Jackson, 1997, p. 639). Dreimanis (1988, p. 39) recommendation that "supraglacial" supersede "superglacial" is followed.
EventEnvironmentValuesupratidalSettingshorelineSettingsupratidal settingPertaining to the shore area marginal to the littoral zone, just above high-tide level.
EventEnvironmentValueswampOrMarshSettingwetlandSettingswamp or marsh settingA water-saturated, periodically wet or continually flooded area with the surface not deeply submerged, essentially without the formation of peat. Marshes are characterized by sedges, cattails, rushes, or other aquatic and grasslike vegetation. Swamps are characterized by tree and brush vegetation.
EventEnvironmentValueterrestrialSettingearthSurfaceSettingterrestrial settingSetting characterized by absence of direct marine influence. Most of the subaerial settings are also terrestrial, but lacustrine settings, while terrestrial, are not subaerial, so the subaerial settings are not included as subcategories.
EventEnvironmentValuetidalChannelSettingsubaqueousSettingtidal channel settingA major channel followed by the tidal currents, extending from offshore into a tidal marsh or a tidal flat.
EventEnvironmentValuetidalFlatSettingtidalSettingtidal flat settingAn extensive, nearly horizontal, barren tract of land that is alternately covered and uncovered by the tide, and consisting of unconsolidated sediment (mostly mud and sand). It may form the top surface of a deltaic deposit.
EventEnvironmentValuetidalMarshSettingswampOrMarshSettingtidal marsh settingA marsh bordering a coast (as in a shallow lagoon or sheltered bay), formed of mud and of the resistant mat of roots of salt-tolerant plants, and regularly inundated during high tides; a marshy tidal flat.
EventEnvironmentValuetidalSettingshorelineSettingtidal settingSetting subject to tidal processes.
EventEnvironmentValuetransformPlateBoundarySettingplateMarginSettingtransform plate boundary settingPlate boundary at which the adjacent plates are moving laterally relative to each other.
EventEnvironmentValuetransitionalCrustalSettingcrustalSettingtransitional-crustal settingCrust formed in the transition zone between continental and oceanic crust, during the history of continental rifting that culminates in the formation of a new ocean.
EventEnvironmentValueultraHighPressureCrustalSettingearthInteriorSettingultra high pressure crustal settingSetting characterized by pressures characteristic of upper mantle, but indicated by mineral assemblage in crustal composition rocks.
EventEnvironmentValueupperBathyalSettingbathyalSettingupper bathyal settingThe ocean environment at water depths between 200 and 600 metres.
EventEnvironmentValueupperContinentalCrustalSettingcontinentalCrustalSettingupper continental crustal settingContinental crustal setting dominated by non metamorphosed to low greenschist facies metamorphic rocks, and brittle deformation.
EventEnvironmentValueupperDeltaPlainSettingdeltaPlainSettingupper delta plain settingThe part of a delta plain essentially unaffected by basinal processes. They do not differ substantially from alluvial environments except that areas of swamp, marsh and lakes are usually more widespread and channels may bifurcate downstream.
EventEnvironmentValueupperMantleSettingmantleSettingupper mantle settingThat part of the mantle which lies above a depth of about 660 km and has a density of 3.4 g/cm3 to 4.0 g/cm3 with increasing depth. Similarly, P-wave velocity increases from about 8 to 11 km/sec with depth and S wave velocity increases from about 4.5 to 6 km/sec with depth. It is presumed to be peridotitic in composition. It includes the subcrustal lithosphere the asthenosphere and the transition zone.
EventEnvironmentValueupperOceanicCrustalSettingoceanicCrustalSettingupper oceanic crustal settingOceanic crustal setting dominated by extrusive rocks, abyssal oceanic sediment, with increasing mafic intrusive rock in lower part.
EventEnvironmentValuevolcanicArcSettingplateMarginSettingvolcanic arc settingA generally curvillinear belt of volcanoes above a subduction zone.
EventEnvironmentValuewasteAndMaterialDepositionAreaSetting waste and material deposition area settingHuman influence setting in which non-natural or natural materials from elsewhere are deposited.
EventEnvironmentValuewetlandSettingearthSurfaceSettingwetland settingSetting characterized by gentle surface slope, and at least intermittent presence of standing water, which may be fresh, brackish, or saline. Wetland may be terrestrial setting or shoreline setting.
EventEnvironmentValuewetToSubHumidSetting wet to sub-humid settingA Wet to sub-humid climate is according Thornthwaite's climate classification system associated with rain forests (wet), forests (humid) and grassland (sub-humid).
EventProcessValueaccretiontectonicProcessaccretionThe addition of material to a continent. Typically involves convergent or transform motion.
EventProcessValuealterationmetamorphicProcessalterationGeneral term for any change in the mineralogical or chemical composition of a rock. Typically related to interaction with hydrous fluids.
EventProcessValuebiologicalPrecipitationdepositionbiological precipitationthe deposition of minerals from solution by the agency of organisms
EventProcessValuebiologicalWeatheringweatheringbiological weatheringbreakdown of rocks by biological agents, e.g. the penetrating and expanding force of roots, the presence of moss and lichen causing humic acids to be retained in contact with rock, and the work of animals (worms, moles, rabbits) in modifying surface soil
EventProcessValuecastingmaterialTransportAndDepositioncastingcovering of the surface with a material liquid during processing and solidifying afterwards
EventProcessValuechemicalPrecipitationdepositionchemical precipitationThe deposition of mineral matter by precipitation from solution or as a result of chemical reactions. May be sedimentary or hydrothermal.
EventProcessValuechemicalWeatheringweatheringchemical weatheringThe process of weathering by which chemical reactions (hydrolysis, hydration, oxidation, carbonation, ion exchange, and solution) transform rocks and minerals into new chemical combinations that are stable under conditions prevailing at or near the Earth's surface; e.g. the alteration of orthoclase to kaolinite.
EventProcessValuecometaryImpactbolideImpactcometary impactthe impact of a comet on the surface of the earth
EventProcessValuecontactMetamorphismmetamorphicProcesscontact metamorphismMetamorphism taking place in rocks at or near their contact with a genetically related body of igneous rock
EventProcessValuecontinentalBreakuptectonicProcesscontinental breakupFragmentation of a continental plate into two or more smaller plates; may involve rifting or strike slip faulting.
EventProcessValuecontinentalCollisiontectonicProcesscontinental collisionThe amalgamation of two continental plates or blocks along a convergent margin.
EventProcessValuecryoturbationmassWastingcryoturbationA collective term to describe the stirring and churning of unconsolidated material resulting from frost action
EventProcessValuedebrisFlowDepositionmechanicalDepositiondebris flow depositionLaminar high-concentration, generally cohesionless deposition process. Flow types included liquefied flow, fluidized flow, grain flow, traction carpet or modified grain flow.
EventProcessValuedeepPloughing deep ploughingmixing of loose surface material by ploughing deeper than frequently done during annual soil cultivation
EventProcessValuedeformationTwinningductileFlowdeformation twinningDeformation of a crystal by gliding to produce crystallographic twinning.
EventProcessValuedeluviationmassWastingdeluviationprocess of non-linear, grain-size selective erosion
EventProcessValuedepositionsedimentaryProcessdepositionAccumulation of material; the constructive process of accumulation of sedimentary particles, chemical precipitation of mineral matter from solution, or the accumulation of organicMaterial on the death of plants and animals.
EventProcessValuedepositionByOrFromMovingIce deposition by or from moving iceDeposition of sediment from ice by melting or pushing. The material has been transported in the ice after entrainment in the moving ice or after deposition from other moving fluids on the ice.
EventProcessValuedepositionFromAir deposition from airDeposition of sediment from air, in which the sediment has been transported after entrainment in the moving air.
EventProcessValuedepositionFromFluidmechanicalDepositiondeposition from fluidDeposition of sediment from moving water or air, in which the sediment is transported by entrainment in the moving fluid. Constrast with debris flow or turbidity current deposition in which movement of fluid/sediment mixture is due to incorporation of sediment in fluid.
EventProcessValuedepositionFromMovingFluidmechanicalDepositiondeposition from moving fluidDeposition of sediment from moving water or air, in which the sediment is transported by entrainment in the moving fluid. Constrast with debris flow or turbidity current deposition in which movement of fluid/sediment mixture is due to incorporation of sediment in fluid.
EventProcessValuedepositionFromWater deposition from waterDeposition of sediment from water, in which the sediment has been transported after entrainment in the moving water or after deposition from other moving fluids.
EventProcessValuediffusionCreepductileFlowdiffusion creepGrain-scale, ductile deformation accomplished by the motion of atoms through crystals, along grain boundaries, and through pore fluids.
EventProcessValuedigging diggingrepeated mixing of loose surface material by digging with a spade or similar tool
EventProcessValuedislocationMetamorphismmetamorphicProcessdislocation metamorphismMetamorphism concentrated along narrow belts of shearing or crushing without an appreciable rise in temperature
EventProcessValuedissolutionchemicalWeatheringdissolutionThe process of dissolving into a homogenous solution, as when an acidic solution dissolves limestone. In karst, refers to the process of dissolving rock to produce landforms, in contrast to solution, the chemical product of dissolution.
EventProcessValuedissolutionCreepductileFlowdissolution creepDeformation by dissolution under the effects of differential stress and its transport to a new location by movement of fluid in the rock body.
EventProcessValueductileFlowdeformationductile flowdeformation without apparent loss of continuity at the scale of observation.
EventProcessValuedumpingmaterialTransportAndDepositiondumpingheaping of mostly solid material, as in a land fill, mine dump, dredging operations
EventProcessValueeffusiveEruptioneruptioneffusive eruptionEruptions characterized by low volatile content of the erupting magma relative to ambient pressure
EventProcessValueerosionsedimentaryProcesserosionThe process of disaggregation of rock and displacement of the resultant particles (sediment) usually by the agents of currents such as, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms (in the case of bioerosion).
EventProcessValueeruptionmagmaticProcesseruptionThe ejection of volcanic materials (lava, pyroclasts, and volcanic gases) onto the Earth's surface, either from a central vent or from a fissure or group of fissures
EventProcessValueexcavationhumanActivityexcavationremoval of material, as in a mining operation
EventProcessValueexcavationhumanActivityexcavationremoval of material, as in a mining operation
EventProcessValuefaultingdeformationfaultingThe process of fracturing, frictional slip, and displacement accumulation that produces a fault
EventProcessValuefoldingdeformationfoldingdeformation in which planar surfaces become regularly curviplanar surfaces with definable limbs (zones of lower curvature) and hinges (zones of higher curvature).
EventProcessValuefracturingdeformationfracturingThe formation of a surface of failure resulting from stress
EventProcessValuefrostShatteringphysicalWeatheringfrost shatteringPropagation of fractures due to expansion of freezing water in intergranular spaces and fractures in a rock body. Result is mechanical disintegration spliitting, or breakup of rock.
EventProcessValuegeologicProcess geologic processprocess that effects the geologic record
EventProcessValuegradinghumanActivitygradingleveling of earth surface by rearrangement of prexisting material
EventProcessValuehaloclastyphysicalWeatheringhaloclastypropagation of fractures in rock due to crytallization of mineral salts (typically sodium chloride) from interstitial water, or volumetrick expansion of salts in capillaries, or hydration pressure of interstitial, trapped salts. Generally results in mechanical disintegration of the rock surface.
EventProcessValuehawaiianEruptioneruptionhawaiian eruptionEruption in which great quantities of extremely fluid basaltic lava are poured out, mainly issuing in lava fountains from fissures on the flanks of a volcano. Explosive phenomena are rare, but much spatter and scoria are piled into cones and mounds along the vents. Characteristic of shield volcanoes
EventProcessValuehydrationchemicalWeatheringhydrationThe process of absorption of water into the crystal structure of a mineral, thereby changing its volume and fracturing and loosening grains
EventProcessValuehydrolysischemicalWeatheringhydrolysisA decomposition reaction involving water. In geology, it commonly indicates reaction between silicate minerals and either pure water or aqueous solution. In such reactions, H
EventProcessValueiceErosionerosionice erosionErosion by corrasion or plucking by moving ice.
EventProcessValueinSituOrganismicGrowthdepositionin-situ organismic growthaccumulation of dead organicMaterial originating from the plants, e.g. peat accumulation in bogs
EventProcessValueintrusionmagmaticProcessintrusionThe process of emplacement of magma in pre-existing rock
EventProcessValuemagmaticCrystallisationmagmaticProcessmagmatic crystallisationThe process by which matter becomes crystalline, from a gaseous, fluid, or dispersed state
EventProcessValuemagneticFieldReversalgeomagneticProcessmagnetic field reversalgeomagnetic event
EventProcessValuemassWastingerosionmass wastingthe dislodgement and downslope transport of soil and rock material under the direct application of gravitational body stresses. In contrast to other erosion processes, the debris removed by mass wasting is not carried within, on, or under another medium. The mass properties of the material being transported depend on the interaction of the soil and rock particles and on the moisture content.
EventProcessValuemassWastingDepositionmechanicalDepositionmass wasting depositionA general term for the dislodgement and downslope transport of soil and rock material under the direct application of gravitational body stresses. In contrast to other erosion processes, the debris removed by mass wasting is not carried within, on, or under another medium. The mass properties of the material being transported depend on the interaction of the soil and rock particles and on the moisture content. Mass wasting includes slow displacements, such as creep and solifluction, and rapid movements such as rockfalls, rockslides, and cohesive debris flows (Jackson, 1997, p. 392). Includes both subaerial mass-wasting processes and subaqueous mass-wasting processes.
EventProcessValuematerialTransportAndDepositionhumanActivitymaterial transport and depositiontransport and heaping of material, as in a land fill, mine dump, dredging operations
EventProcessValuemechanicalDepositiondepositionmechanical depositionprocess by which material that is being transported as particles by moving air, water, ice, or other fluid comes to rest and accumulates.
EventProcessValuemeltingmagmaticProcessmeltingchange of state from a solid to a liquid
EventProcessValuemeteoriteImpactbolideImpactmeteorite impactthe impact of a meteorite on the surface of the earth
EventProcessValuemicrofracturingfracturingmicrofracturingDevelopment of fractures within a single grain or cutting several grains.
EventProcessValuemixinghumanActivitymixingMixing
EventProcessValueobductiontectonicProcessobductionThe overthrusting of continental crust by oceanic crust or mantle rocks at a convergent plate boundary.
EventProcessValueorganicAccumulationdepositionorganic accumulationsediment accumulation of biologically produced organicMaterial, as in bog, coal swamps.
EventProcessValueorogenicProcesstectonicProcessorogenic processmountain building process.
EventProcessValueoxidationchemicalWeatheringoxidationChemical reaction that involve stripping of electrons from cations. Typicall reactions include converting sulfide minerals to oxide minerals, or increasing the oxidation state of cations in existing oxide minerals. The most commonly observed is the oxidation of Fe
EventProcessValuepartialMeltingmeltingpartial meltingProcess of melting involving only some of the mineral phases in a rock, to produce a mixture of melt and residual particles.
EventProcessValuephysicalWeatheringweatheringphysical weatheringThe process of weathering by which frost action, salt-crystal growth, absorption of water, and other physical processes break down a rock to fragments, involving no chemical change
EventProcessValueplinianEruptionpyroclasticEruptionplinian eruptionAn explosive eruption in which a steady, turbulent stream of fragmented magma and magmatic gas is released at a high velocity from a vent. Large volumes of tephra and tall eruption columns are characteristic
EventProcessValuepolarWandergeomagneticProcesspolar wanderprocess of migration of the axis of the earth's dipole field relative to the rotation axis of the Earth.
EventProcessValuepressureReleaseWeatheringphysicalWeatheringpressure release weatheringpropagation of fractures near the surface of solid rock due to expansion related to release of confining pressure when deeply buried rock is unroofed. Fractures typically propagate along surfaces close to and subparallel to the surface of the outcrop.
EventProcessValuepyroclasticEruptioneruptionpyroclastic eruptionEruption produced by the generation and rapid expansion of a gas phase that disrupts magma, surrounding wall rock or sediment
EventProcessValuereworkingmassWastingreworkingnear-range transport by water with predominantly changing the inner physical organisation of the sediment particles
EventProcessValueriftingcontinentalBreakupriftingExtension of the crust to form one or more long, narrow graben of regional extent.
EventProcessValueseaLevelFallseaLevelChangesea level fallprocess of mean sea level falling relative to some datum
EventProcessValueseaLevelRiseseaLevelChangesea level riseprocess of mean sea level rising relative to some datum
EventProcessValuesealingmaterialTransportAndDepositionsealingcovering of the surface with a non-liquid material not or little permeable for water after processing
EventProcessValueshearingdeformationshearingA deformation in which contiguous parts of a body are displaced relatively to each other in a direction parallel to a surface. The surface may be a discrete fault, or the deformation may be a penetrative strain and the shear surface is a geometric abstraction.
EventProcessValuespreadingtectonicProcessspreadingA process whereby new oceanic crust is formed by upwelling of magma at the center of mid-ocean ridges and by a moving-away of the new material from the site of upwelling at rates of one to ten centimeters per year.
EventProcessValuestrombolianEruptioneruptionstrombolian eruptionEruption characterized by jetting of clots or fountains of fluid, basaltic lava from a central crater
EventProcessValuesubductiontectonicProcesssubductionThe process of one lithospheric plate descending beneath another
EventProcessValuethermalShockWeatheringphysicalWeatheringthermal shock weatheringpropagation of fractures near the surface of solid rock due to expansion and contraction caused by temperature changes. Fractures typically propagate along surfaces close to and subparallel to the surface of the outcrop.
EventProcessValuetransformFaultingtectonicProcesstransform faultingA strike-slip fault that links two other faults or two other plate boundaries (e.g. two segments of a mid-ocean ridge). Transform faults often exhibit characteristics that distinguish them from transcurrent faults: (1) For transform faults formed at the same time as the faults they link, slip on the transform fault has equal magnitude at all points along the transform; slip magnitude on the transform fault can exceed the length of the transform fault, and slip does not decrease to zero at the fault termini. (2) For transform faults linking two similar features, e.g. if two mid-ocean ridge segments linked by a transform have equal spreading rates, then the length of the transform does not change as slip accrues on it.
EventProcessValueturbidityCurrentDepositionmechanicalDepositionturbidity current depositionDeposition from a turbulent, low concentration sediment-water mixture.
EventProcessValuevulcanianEruptionpyroclasticEruptionvulcanian eruptionEruption characterized by the explosive ejection of fragments of new lava, commonly incandescent when they leave the vent but either solid or too viscous to assume any appreciable degree of rounding during their flight through the air. With these there are often breadcrust bombs or blocks, and generally large proportions of ash
EventProcessValuewaterErosionerosionwater erosionErosion by clast impact or plucking by moving liquid water
EventProcessValuewindErosionerosionwind erosionErosion by clast impact or plucking by moving air (wind)
FaultTypeValuedetachmentFault detachment faultA regional-scale, large displacement, low-angle normal fault.
FaultTypeValuedextralStrikeSlipFault dextral strike slip faultFault with right-lateral strike-parallel displacement component of slip vector more than 10 times the dip-parallel component of the slip vector at at least one location along the fault, and right-lateral displacement over more than half the mapped trace of the fault.
FaultTypeValuehighAngleReverse high angle reverseReverse fault that dips at least 45 degrees over more than half of its recognized extent, for which slip or separation is not explicitly specified.
FaultTypeValuehighAngleNormalFault high-angle normal faultFault that dips at least 45 degrees over more than half of the recognized extent of the fault with the hanging wall displaced from a structurally higher position relative to footwall rocks.
FaultTypeValuehorizontalFault horizontal faultFault that dips less than 10 degrees over more than half the recognized extent of the fault.
FaultTypeValueleftNormalFault left normal faultHigh angle fault with slip vector that has ratio of strike-parallel to dip-parallel displacement between 10 to 1 and 1 to 10 at at least one location along the mapped trace, with left-lateral strike-parallel component and normal dip-parallel component over at least half the mapped trace of the fault.
FaultTypeValueleftReverseFault left reverse faultHigh angle fault with slip vector that has ratio of strike-parallel to dip-parallel displacement between 10 to 1 and 1 to 10 at at least one location along the mapped trace, with left-lateral strike-parallel component and reverse dip-parallel component over at least half the mapped trace of the fault.
FaultTypeValuelowAngleNormalFault low-angle normal faultFault that dips less than 45 degrees over more than half of the recognized extent of the fault with the hanging wall displaced from a structurally higher position relative to footwall rocks.
FaultTypeValuemixedExtractionFault mixed extraction faultAn extraction fault with some displacement within the fault plane.
FaultTypeValuenormalFault normal faultFault with dip-parallel displacement component of slip vector more than 10 times the strike-parallel component of the slip vector over more than half recognized extent of the fault, and for which the fault dips consistently in the same direction, and for which the hanging wall has been displaced down relative to the footwall.
FaultTypeValuepureExtractionFault pure extraction faultAn extraction fault with no discernible displacement within the fault plane.
FaultTypeValuerightNormalFault right normal faultHigh angle fault with slip vector that has ratio of strike-parallel to dip-parallel displacement between 10 to 1 and 1 to 10 at at least one location along the mapped trace, with right-lateral strike-parallel component and normal dip-parallel component of slip over at least half the mapped trace of the fault
FaultTypeValuerightReverseFault right reverse faultHigh angle fault with slip vector that has ratio of strike-parallel to dip-parallel displacement between 10 to 1 and 1 to 10 at at least one location along the mapped trace, with a right-lateral strike-parallel component and reverse dip-parallel component of slip over at least half the mapped trace of the fault.
FaultTypeValuesinistralStrikeSlipFault sinistral strike slip faultFault with left-lateral strike-parallel displacement component of slip vector more than 10 times the dip-parallel component of the slip vector at at least one location along the fault, and left-lateral displacement over more than half the mapped trace of the fault.
FaultTypeValuethrustFault thrust faultFault that dips less than 45 degrees over more than half of the recognized extent of the fault, with a hanging wall displaced from a structurally deeper position relative to footwall rocks.
FaultTypeValuewrenchFault wrench faultA strike slip fault in which the fault plane dips at least 45 degrees over more than half of the recognized extent of the fault.
GeochronologicEraValuephanerozoic PhanerozoicPhanerozoic (older bound-542 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-0.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecenozoicphanerozoicCenozoicCenozoic (older bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma, younger bound-0.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuequaternarycenozoicQuaternaryQuaternary (older bound-2.588 Ma, younger bound-0.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueholocenequaternaryHoloceneHolocene (older bound-0.0117 Ma, younger bound-0.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepleistocenequaternaryPleistocenePleistocene (older bound-2.588 Ma, younger bound-0.0117 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueweichselianholoceneWeichselianWeichselianTWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueeemianholoceneEemianEemianTWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuesaalianholoceneSaalianSaalianTWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueholsteinianholoceneHolsteinianHolsteinianTWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueelsterianholoceneElsterianElsterianTWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuecromerianholoceneCromerian complexCromerian complexTWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuebavelianholoceneBavelianBavelianTWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuelatePleistocenepleistoceneLate/Upper PleistoceneLate/Upper Pleistocene (older bound-0.126 Ma, younger bound-0.0117 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueionianpleistoceneIonianIonian (older bound-0.781 Ma, younger bound-0.126 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecalabrianpleistoceneCalabrianCalabrian (older bound-1.806 Ma, younger bound-0.781 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuegelasianpleistoceneGelasianGelasian (older bound-2.588 Ma, younger bound-1.806 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueneogenecenozoicNeogeneNeogene (older bound-23.03 Ma, younger bound-2.588 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueplioceneneogenePliocenePliocene (older bound-5.332 Ma, younger bound-2.588 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepiacenzianpliocenePiacenzianPiacenzian (older bound-3.6 Ma, younger bound-2.588 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuezancleanplioceneZancleanZanclean (older bound-5.332 Ma, younger bound-3.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemioceneneogeneMioceneMiocene (older bound-23.03 Ma, younger bound-5.332 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemessinianmioceneMessinianMessinian (older bound-7.246 Ma, younger bound-5.332 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetortonianmioceneTortonianTortonian (older bound-11.608 Ma, younger bound-7.246 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueserravallianmioceneSerravallianSerravallian (older bound-13.82 Ma, younger bound-11.608 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelanghianmioceneLanghianLanghian (older bound-15.97 Ma, younger bound-13.82 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueburdigalianmioceneBurdigalianBurdigalian (older bound-20.43 Ma, younger bound-15.97 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueaquitanianmioceneAquitanianAquitanian (older bound-23.03 Ma, younger bound-20.43 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepaleogenecenozoicPaleogenePaleogene (older bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma, younger bound-23.03 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueoligocenecenozoicOligoceneOligocene (older bound-33.9 +/-0.1 Ma, younger bound-23.03 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuechattianoligoceneChattianChattian (older bound-28.4 +/-0.1 Ma, younger bound-23.03 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuerupelianoligoceneRupelianRupelian (older bound-33.9 +/-0.1 Ma, younger bound-28.4 +/-0.1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueeocenecenozoicEoceneEocene (older bound-55.8 +/-0.2 Ma, younger bound-33.9 +/-0.1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepriabonianeocenePriabonianPriabonian (older bound-37.2 +/-0.1 Ma, younger bound-33.9 +/-0.1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuebartonianeoceneBartonianBartonian (older bound-40.4 +/-0.2 Ma, younger bound-37.2 +/-0.1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelutetianeoceneLutetianLutetian (older bound-48.6 +/-0.2 Ma, younger bound-40.4 +/-0.2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueypresianeoceneYpresianYpresian (older bound-55.8 +/-0.2 Ma, younger bound-48.6 +/-0.2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepaleocenepaleogenePaleocenePaleocene (older bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma, younger bound-55.8 +/-0.2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuethanetianpaleoceneThanetianThanetian (older bound-58.7 +/-0.2 Ma, younger bound-55.8 +/-0.2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueselandianpaleoceneSelandianSelandian (older bound-61.1 Ma, younger bound-58.7 +/-0.2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuedanianpaleoceneDanianDanian (older bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma, younger bound-61.1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemesozoicphanerozoicMesozoicMesozoic (older bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma, younger bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecretaceousmesozoicCretaceousCretaceous (older bound-145.5 +/-4 Ma, younger bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelateCretaceouscretaceousLate/Upper CretaceousLate/Upper Cretaceous (older bound-99.6 +/-0.9 Ma, younger bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemaastrichtianlateCretaceousMaastrichtianMaastrichtian (older bound-70.6 +/-0.6 Ma, younger bound-65.5 +/-0.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecampanianlateCretaceousCampanianCampanian (older bound-83.5 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-70.6 +/-0.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesantonianlateCretaceousSantonianSantonian (older bound-85.8 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-83.5 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueconiacianlateCretaceousConiacianConiacian (older bound-88.6 Ma, younger bound-85.8 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueturonianlateCretaceousTuronianTuronian (older bound-93.6 +/-0.8 Ma, younger bound-88.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecenomanianlateCretaceousCenomanianCenomanian (older bound-99.6 +/-0.9 Ma, younger bound-93.6 +/-0.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueearlyOrLowerCretaceouscretaceousEarly/Lower CretaceousEarly/Lower Cretaceous (older bound-145.5 +/-4 Ma, younger bound-99.6 +/-0.9 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuealbianearlyOrLowerCretaceousAlbianAlbian (older bound-112 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-99.6 +/-0.9 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueaptianearlyOrLowerCretaceousAptianAptian (older bound-125 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-112 +/-1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuebarremianearlyOrLowerCretaceousBarremianBarremian (older bound-130 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-125 +/-1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuehauterivianearlyOrLowerCretaceousHauterivianHauterivian (older bound-133.9 Ma, younger bound-130 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuevalanginianearlyOrLowerCretaceousValanginianValanginian (older bound-140.2 +/-3 Ma, younger bound-133.9 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueberriasianearlyOrLowerCretaceousBerriasianBerriasian (older bound-145.5 +/-4 Ma, younger bound-140.2 +/-3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuejurassicmesozoicJurassicJurassic (older bound-199.6 +/-0.6 Ma, younger bound-145.5 +/-4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelateJurassicjurassicLate/Upper JurassicLate/Upper Jurassic (older bound-161.2 +/-4 Ma, younger bound-145.5 +/-4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetithonianlateJurassicTithonianTithonian (older bound-150.8 +/-4 Ma, younger bound-145.5 +/-4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuekimmeridgianlateJurassicKimmeridgianKimmeridgian (older bound-155.6 Ma, younger bound-150.8 +/-4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueoxfordianlateJurassicOxfordianOxfordian (older bound-161.2 +/-4 Ma, younger bound-155.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemiddleJurassicjurassicMiddle JurassicMiddle Jurassic (older bound-175.6 +/-2 Ma, younger bound-161.2 +/-4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecallovianmiddleJurassicCallovianCallovian (older bound-164.7 +/-4 Ma, younger bound-161.2 +/-4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuebathonianmiddleJurassicBathonianBathonian (older bound-167.7 +/-3.5 Ma, younger bound-164.7 +/-4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuebajocianmiddleJurassicBajocianBajocian (older bound-171.6 +/-3 Ma, younger bound-167.7 +/-3.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueaalenianmiddleJurassicAalenianAalenian (older bound-175.6 +/-2 Ma, younger bound-171.6 +/-3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueearlyJurassicjurassicEarly/Lower JurassicEarly/Lower Jurassic (older bound-199.6 +/-0.6 Ma, younger bound-175.6 +/-2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetoarcianearlyJurassicToarcianToarcian (older bound-183 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-175.6 +/-2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepliensbachianearlyJurassicPliensbachianPliensbachian (older bound-189.6 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-183 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesinemurianearlyJurassicSinemurianSinemurian (older bound-196.5 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-189.6 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuehettangianearlyJurassicHettangianHettangian (older bound-199.6 +/-0.6 Ma, younger bound-196.5 +/-1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetriassicmesozoicTriassicTriassic (older bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma, younger bound-199.6 +/-0.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelateTriassictriassicLate/Upper TriassicLate/Upper Triassic (older bound-228.7 Ma, younger bound-199.6 +/-0.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuerhaetianlateTriassicRhaetianRhaetian (older bound-203.6 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-199.6 +/-0.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuenorianlateTriassicNorianNorian (older bound-216.5 +/-2 Ma, younger bound-203.6 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecarnianlateTriassicCarnianCarnian (older bound-228.7 Ma, younger bound-216.5 +/-2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemiddleTriassicmiddleTriassicMiddle TriassicMiddle Triassic (older bound-245.9 Ma, younger bound-228.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueladinianmiddleTriassicLadinianLadinian (older bound-237 +/-2 Ma, younger bound-228.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueanisianmiddleTriassicAnisianAnisian (older bound-245.9 Ma, younger bound-237 +/-2 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueearlyTriassictriassicEarly/Lower TriassicEarly/Lower Triassic (older bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma, younger bound-245.9 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueolenekianearlyTriassicOlenekianOlenekian (older bound-249.5 Ma, younger bound-245.9 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueinduanearlyTriassicInduanInduan (older bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma, younger bound-249.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepaleozoicphanerozoicPaleozoicPaleozoic (older bound-542 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepermianpaleozoicPermianPermian (older bound-299 +/-0.8 Ma, younger bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelopingianpermianLopingianLopingian (older bound-260.4 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuechanghsingianlopingianChanghsingianChanghsingian (older bound-253.8 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-251 +/-0.4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuewuchiapingianlopingianWuchiapingianWuchiapingian (older bound-260.4 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-253.8 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueguadalupianpermianGuadalupianGuadalupian (older bound-270.6 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-260.4 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecapitanianguadalupianCapitanianCapitanian (older bound-265.8 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-260.4 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuewordianguadalupianWordianWordian (older bound-268 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-265.8 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueroadianguadalupianRoadianRoadian (older bound-270.6 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-268 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecisuralianpermianCisuralianCisuralian (older bound-299 +/-0.8 Ma, younger bound-270.6 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuekunguriancisuralianKungurianKungurian (older bound-275.6 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-270.6 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueartinskiancisuralianArtinskianArtinskian (older bound-284.4 +/-0.7 Ma, younger bound-275.6 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesakmariancisuralianSakmarianSakmarian (older bound-294.6 +/-0.8 Ma, younger bound-284.4 +/-0.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueasseliancisuralianAsselianAsselian (older bound-299 +/-0.8 Ma, younger bound-294.6 +/-0.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecarboniferouspaleozoicCarboniferousCarboniferous (older bound-359.2 +/-2.5 Ma, younger bound-299 +/-0.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepennsylvaniancarboniferousPennsylvanianPennsylvanian (older bound-318.1 +/-1.3 Ma, younger bound-299 +/-0.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelatePennsylvanianpennsylvanianLate/Upper PennsylvanianLate/Upper Pennsylvanian (older bound-307.2 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-299 +/-0.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuegzhelianlatePennsylvanianGzhelianGzhelian (older bound-303.4 +/-0.9 Ma, younger bound-299 +/-0.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuekasimovianlatePennsylvanianKasimovianKasimovian (older bound-307.2 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-303.4 +/-0.9 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemoscovianpennsylvanianMoscovianMoscovian (older bound-311.7 +/-1.1 Ma, younger bound-307.2 +/-1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuebashkirianpennsylvanianBashkirianBashkirian (older bound-318.1 +/-1.3 Ma, younger bound-311.7 +/-1.1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemississippiancarboniferousMississippianMississippian (older bound-359.2 +/-2.5 Ma, younger bound-318.1 +/-1.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueserpukhovianmississippianSerpukhovianSerpukhovian (older bound-328.3 +/-1.6 Ma, younger bound-318.1 +/-1.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueviseanmississippianViseanVisean (older bound-345.3 +/-2.1 Ma, younger bound-328.3 +/-1.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetournaisianmississippianTournaisianTournaisian (older bound-359.2 +/-2.5 Ma, younger bound-345.3 +/-2.1 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuedevonianpaleozoicDevonianDevonian (older bound-416 +/-2.8 Ma, younger bound-359.2 +/-2.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelateDevoniandevonianLate/Upper DevonianLate/Upper Devonian (older bound-385.3 +/-2.6 Ma, younger bound-359.2 +/-2.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuefamennianlateDevonianFamennianFamennian (older bound-374.5 +/-2.6 Ma, younger bound-359.2 +/-2.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuefrasnianlateDevonianFrasnianFrasnian (older bound-385.3 +/-2.6 Ma, younger bound-374.5 +/-2.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemiddleDevoniandevonianMiddle DevonianMiddle Devonian (older bound-397.5 +/-2.7 Ma, younger bound-385.3 +/-2.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuegivetianmiddleDevonianGivetianGivetian (older bound-391.8 +/-2.7 Ma, younger bound-385.3 +/-2.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueeifelianmiddleDevonianEifelianEifelian (older bound-397.5 +/-2.7 Ma, younger bound-391.8 +/-2.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueearlyDevoniandevonianEarly/Lower DevonianEarly/Lower Devonian (older bound-416 +/-2.8 Ma, younger bound-397.5 +/-2.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueemsianearlyDevonianEmsianEmsian (older bound-407 +/-2.8 Ma, younger bound-397.5 +/-2.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepragianearlyDevonianPragianPragian (older bound-411.2 +/-2.8 Ma, younger bound-407 +/-2.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelochkovianearlyDevonianLochkovianLochkovian (older bound-416 +/-2.8 Ma, younger bound-411.2 +/-2.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesilurianpaleozoicSilurianSilurian (older bound-443.7 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-416 +/-2.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepridolisilurianPridoliPridoli (older bound-418.7 +/-2.7 Ma, younger bound-416 +/-2.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueludlowsilurianLudlowLudlow (older bound-422.9 +/-2.5 Ma, younger bound-418.7 +/-2.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueludfordianludlowLudfordianLudfordian (older bound-421.3 +/-2.6 Ma, younger bound-418.7 +/-2.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuegorstianludlowGorstianGorstian (older bound-422.9 +/-2.5 Ma, younger bound-421.3 +/-2.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuewenlocksilurianWenlockWenlock (older bound-428.2 +/-2.3 Ma, younger bound-422.9 +/-2.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuehomerianwenlockHomerianHomerian (older bound-426.2 +/-2.4 Ma, younger bound-422.9 +/-2.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesheinwoodianwenlockSheinwoodianSheinwoodian (older bound-428.2 +/-2.3 Ma, younger bound-426.2 +/-2.4 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuellandoverysilurianLlandoveryLlandovery (older bound-443.7 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-428.2 +/-2.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetelychianllandoveryTelychianTelychian (older bound-436 +/-1.9 Ma, younger bound-428.2 +/-2.3 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueaeronianllandoveryAeronianAeronian (older bound-439 +/-1.8 Ma, younger bound-436 +/-1.9 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuerhuddanianllandoveryRhuddanianRhuddanian (older bound-443.7 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-439 +/-1.8 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueordovicianpaleozoicOrdovicianOrdovician (older bound-488.3 +/-1.7 Ma, younger bound-443.7 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuelateOrdovicianordovicianLate/Upper OrdovicianLate/Upper Ordovician (older bound-460.9 +/-1.6 Ma, younger bound-443.7 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuehirnantianlateOrdovicianHirnantianHirnantian (older bound-445.6 +/-1.5 Ma, younger bound-443.7 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuekatianlateOrdovicianKatianKatian (older bound-455.8 +/-1.6 Ma, younger bound-445.6 +/-1.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesandbianlateOrdovicianSandbianSandbian (older bound-460.9 +/-1.6 Ma, younger bound-455.8 +/-1.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuemiddleOrdovicianordovicianMiddle OrdovicianMiddle Ordovician (older bound-471.8 +/-1.6 Ma, younger bound-460.9 +/-1.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuedarriwilianmiddleOrdovicianDarriwilianDarriwilian (older bound-468.1 +/-1.6 Ma, younger bound-460.9 +/-1.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuedapingianmiddleOrdovicianDapingianDapingian (older bound-471.8 +/-1.6 Ma, younger bound-468.1 +/-1.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueearlyOrdovicianordovicianEarly/Lower OrdovicianEarly/Lower Ordovician (older bound-488.3 +/-1.7 Ma, younger bound-471.8 +/-1.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuefloianearlyOrdovicianFloianFloian (older bound-478.6 +/-1.7 Ma, younger bound-471.8 +/-1.6 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetremadocianearlyOrdovicianTremadocianTremadocian (older bound-488.3 +/-1.7 Ma, younger bound-478.6 +/-1.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianpaleozoicCambrianCambrian (older bound-542 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-488.3 +/-1.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuefurongiancambrianFurongianFurongian (older bound-499.0 Ma, younger bound-488.3 +/-1.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianStage10furongianCambrian-Stage 10Cambrian-Stage 10 (older bound-492.0 Ma, younger bound-488.3 +/-1.7 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianStage9furongianCambrian-Stage 9Cambrian-Stage 9 (older bound-496.0 Ma, younger bound-492.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepaibianfurongianPaibianPaibian (older bound-499.0 Ma, younger bound-496.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianSeries3cambrianCambrian-Series 3Cambrian-Series 3 (older bound-510.0 Ma, younger bound-499.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueguzhangiancambrianSeries3GuzhangianGuzhangian (older bound-503.0 Ma, younger bound-499.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuedrumiancambrianSeries3DrumianDrumian (older bound-506.5 Ma, younger bound-503.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianSeries3Stage5cambrianSeries3Cambrian-Series 3-Stage 5Cambrian-Series 3-Stage 5 (older bound-510.0 Ma, younger bound-506.5 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianSeries2cambrianCambrian-Series 2Cambrian-Series 2 (older bound-521.0 Ma, younger bound-510.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianStage4cambrianSeries2Cambrian-Stage 4Cambrian-Stage 4 (older bound-515.0 Ma, younger bound-510.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianStage3cambrianSeries2Cambrian-Stage 3Cambrian-Stage 3 (older bound-521.0 Ma, younger bound-515.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueterreneuviancambrianTerreneuvianTerreneuvian (older bound-542 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-521.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecambrianStage2terreneuvianCambrian-Stage 2Cambrian-Stage 2 (older bound-528.0 Ma, younger bound-521.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuefortunianterreneuvianFortunianFortunian (older bound-542 +/-1 Ma, younger bound-528.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueprecambrian PrecambrianPrecambrian (older bound-4600.0 Ma, younger bound-542.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueproterozoicprecambrianProterozoicProterozoic (older bound-2500.0 Ma, younger bound-542.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueneoproterozoicproterozoicNeoproterozoicNeoproterozoic (older bound-1000.0 Ma, younger bound-542.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueediacaranneoproterozoicEdiacaranEdiacaran (older bound-635.0 Ma, younger bound-542.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecryogenianneoproterozoicCryogenianCryogenian (older bound-850.0 Ma, younger bound-635.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetonianneoproterozoicTonianTonian (older bound-1000.0 Ma, younger bound-850.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuetonian2tonianTonian 2 *Tonian 2 * (older bound-910.0 Ma, younger bound-850.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuetonian1tonianTonian 1 *Tonian 1 * (older bound-1000.0 Ma, younger bound-910.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuemesoproterozoicproterozoicMesoproterozoicMesoproterozoic (older bound-1600.0 Ma, younger bound-1000.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuestenianmesoproterozoicStenianStenian (older bound-1200.0 Ma, younger bound-1000.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuestenian2stenianStenian 2 *Stenian 2 * (older bound-1130.0 Ma, younger bound-1000.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuestenian1stenianStenian 1 *Stenian 1 * (older bound-1200.0 Ma, younger bound-1130.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueectasianmesoproterozoicEctasianEctasian (older bound-1400.0 Ma, younger bound-1200.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueectasian4ectasianEctasian 4 *Ectasian 4 * (older bound-1250.0 Ma, younger bound-1200.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueectasian3ectasianEctasian 3 *Ectasian 3 * (older bound-1270.0 Ma, younger bound-1250.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueectasian2ectasianEctasian 2 *Ectasian 2 * (older bound-1360.0 Ma, younger bound-1270.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueectasian1ectasianEctasian 1 *Ectasian 1 * (older bound-1400.0 Ma, younger bound-1360.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuecalymmianmesoproterozoicCalymmianCalymmian (older bound-1600.0 Ma, younger bound-1400.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuecalymmian4calymmianCalymmian 4 *Calymmian 4 * (older bound-1440.0 Ma, younger bound-1400.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuecalymmian3calymmianCalymmian 3 *Calymmian 3 * (older bound-1470.0 Ma, younger bound-1440.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuecalymmian2calymmianCalymmian 2 *Calymmian 2 * (older bound-1520.0 Ma, younger bound-1470.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuecalymmian1calymmianCalymmian 1 *Calymmian 1 * (older bound-1600.0 Ma, younger bound-1520.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuepaleoproterozoicproterozoicPaleoproterozoicPaleoproterozoic (older bound-2500.0 Ma, younger bound-1600.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuestatherianpaleoproterozoicStatherianStatherian (older bound-1800.0 Ma, younger bound-1600.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuestatherian4statherianStatherian 4 *Statherian 4 * (older bound-1660.0 Ma, younger bound-1600.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuestatherian3statherianStatherian 3 *Statherian 3 * (older bound-1740.0 Ma, younger bound-1660.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuestatherian2statherianStatherian 2 *Statherian 2 * (older bound-1770.0 Ma, younger bound-1740.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuestatherian1statherianStatherian 1 *Statherian 1 * (older bound-1800.0 Ma, younger bound-1770.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueorosirianpaleoproterozoicOrosirianOrosirian (older bound-2050.0 Ma, younger bound-1800.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueorosirian7orosirianOrosirian 7 *Orosirian 7 * (older bound-1820.0 Ma, younger bound-1800.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueorosirian6orosirianOrosirian 6 *Orosirian 6 * (older bound-1840.0 Ma, younger bound-1820.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueorosirian5orosirianOrosirian 5 *Orosirian 5 * (older bound-1870.0 Ma, younger bound-1840.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueorosirian4orosirianOrosirian 4 *Orosirian 4 * (older bound-1880.0 Ma, younger bound-1870.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueorosirian3orosirianOrosirian 3 *Orosirian 3 * (older bound-1920.0 Ma, younger bound-1880.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueorosirian2orosirianOrosirian 2 *Orosirian 2 * (older bound-1960.0 Ma, younger bound-1920.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueorosirian1orosirianOrosirian 1 *Orosirian 1 * (older bound-2050.0 Ma, younger bound-1960.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuerhyacianpaleoproterozoicRhyacianRhyacian (older bound-2300.0 Ma, younger bound-2050.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesiderianpaleoproterozoicSiderianSiderian (older bound-2500.0 Ma, younger bound-2300.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuesiderian2siderianSiderian 2 *Siderian 2 * (older bound-2400.0 Ma, younger bound-2300.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuesiderian1siderianSiderian 1 *Siderian 1 * (older bound-2500.0 Ma, younger bound-2400.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuearcheanprecambrianArcheanArchean (older bound-4000.0 Ma, younger bound-2500.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueneoarcheanarcheanNeoarcheanNeoarchean (older bound-2800.0 Ma, younger bound-2500.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueneoarchean2neoarcheanNeoarchean 2 *Neoarchean 2 * (older bound-2650.0 Ma, younger bound-2500.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValueneoarchean1neoarcheanNeoarchean 1 *Neoarchean 1 * (older bound-2800.0 Ma, younger bound-2650.0 Ma)TWG-GE term
GeochronologicEraValuemesoarcheanarcheanMesoarcheanMesoarchean (older bound-3200.0 Ma, younger bound-2800.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuepaleoarcheanarcheanPaleoarcheanPaleoarchean (older bound-3600.0 Ma, younger bound-3200.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValueeoarcheanarcheanEoarcheanEoarchean (older bound-4000.0 Ma, younger bound-3600.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
GeochronologicEraValuehadeanprecambrianHadean (informal)Hadean (informal Ma) (older bound-4600.0 Ma, younger bound-4000.0 Ma)IUGS /CGI value
LithologyValueacidicIgneousRockacidicIgneousMaterialacidic igneous rockIgneous rock with more than 63 percent SiO2.
LithologyValuealkaliFeldsparGranitegranitoidalkali feldspar graniteGranitic rock that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.1. QAPF field 2.
LithologyValuealkaliFeldsparRhyoliterhyolitoidalkali feldspar rhyoliteRhyolitoid in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is less than 0.1. QAPF field 2.
LithologyValuealkaliFeldsparSyenitealkaliFeldsparSyeniticRockalkali feldspar syeniteAlkali feldspar syenitic rock that contains 0-5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6.
LithologyValuealkaliFeldsparSyeniticRocksyenitoidalkali feldspar syenitic rockSyenitoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio of less than 0.1. QAPF fields 6, 6*, and 6'.
LithologyValuealkaliFeldsparTrachytealkaliFeldsparTrachyticRockalkali feldspar trachyteTrachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.1, between 0 and 5 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and no feldspathoid minerals. QAPF field 6.
LithologyValuealkaliFeldsparTrachyticRocktrachytoidalkali feldspar trachytic rockTrachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.1. QAPF fields 6, 6', and 6*.
LithologyValuealkaliOlivineBasaltbasaltalkali olivine basaltAlkali olivine basalt is silica-undersaturated, characterized by the absence of orthopyroxene, absence of quartz, presence of olivine, and typically contains some feldspathoid mineral, alkali feldspar or phlogopite in the groundmass. Feldspar phenocrysts typically are labradorite to andesine in composition. Augite is rich in titanium compared to augite in tholeiitic basalt. Alkali olivine basalt is relatively rich in sodium.
LithologyValueamphibolitemetamorphicRockamphiboliteMetamorphic rock mainly consisting of green, brown or black amphibole and plagioclase (including albite), which combined form 75 percent or more of the rock, and both of which are present as major constituents. The amphibole constitutes 50 percent or more of the total mafic constituents and is present in an amount of 30 percent or more; other common minerals include quartz, clinopyroxene, garnet, epidote-group minerals, biotite, titanite and scapolite.
LithologyValueandesitefineGrainedIgneousRockandesiteFine-grained igneous rock with less than 20 percent quartz and less than 10 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater 0.65. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 or chemically in TAS field O2 as andesite. Basalt and andesite, which share the same QAPF fields, are distinguished chemically based on silica content, with basalt defined to contain less than 52 weight percent silica. If chemical data are not available, the color index is used to distinguish the categories, with basalt defined to contain greater than 35 percent mafic minerals by volume or greater than 40 percent mafic minerals by weight. Typically consists of plagioclase (frequently zoned from labradorite to oligoclase), pyroxene, hornblende and/or biotite. Fine grained equivalent of dioritic rock.
LithologyValueanorthositeanorthositicRockanorthositeAnorthositic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10.
LithologyValueanorthositicRockphaneriticIgneousRockanorthositic rockLeucocratic phaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting essentially of plagioclase, often with small amounts of pyroxene. By definition, colour index M is less than 10, and plagiclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.9. Less than 20 percent quartz and less than 10 percent feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10, 10*, and 10'.
LithologyValueanthrazitcoalanthrazitCoal that has vitrinite mean random reflectance greater than 2.0% (determined in conformance with ISO 7404-5). Less than 12-14 percent volatiles (dry, ash free), greater than 91 percent fixed carbon (dry, ash free basis). The highest rank coal; very hard, glossy, black, with semimetallic luster, semi conchoidal fracture.
LithologyValueaplitephaneriticIgneousRockapliteLight coloured crystalline rock, characterized by a fine grained allotriomorphic-granular (aplitic, saccharoidal or xenomorphic) texture; typically granitic composition, consisting of quartz, alkali feldspar and sodic plagioclase.
LithologyValuearenitsandstonearenitClastic sandstone that contains less than 10 percent matrix. Matrix is mud-size silicate minerals (clay, feldspar, quartz, rock fragments, and alteration products) of detrital or diagenetic nature.
LithologyValueashAndLapillitephraash and lapilliTephra in which less than 25 percent of fragments are greater than 64 mm in longest dimension
LithologyValueashBrecciaBombOrBlockTephratephraash breccia, bomb, or block tephraTephra in which more than 25 percent of particles are greater than 64 mm in largest dimension. Includes ash breccia, bomb tephra and block tephra of Gillespie and Styles (1999)
LithologyValueashTuffLapillistoneAndLapilliTuffpyroclasticRockash tuff, lapillistone, and lapilli tuffPyroclastic rock in which less than 25 percent of rock by volume are more than 64 mm in longest diameter. Includes tuff, lapilli tuff, and lapillistone.
LithologyValuebasaltbasicIgneousRockbasaltFine-grained or porphyritic igneous rock with less than 20 percent quartz, and less than 10 percent feldspathoid minerals, in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater 0.65. Typically composed of calcic plagioclase and clinopyroxene; phenocrysts typically include one or more of calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and olivine. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 or chemically in TAS field B as basalt. Basalt and andesite are distinguished chemically based on silica content, with basalt defined to contain less than 52 weight percent silica. If chemical data are not available, the color index is used to distinguish the categories, with basalt defined to contain greater than 35 percent mafic minerals by volume or greater than 40 percent mafic minerals by weight.
LithologyValuebasanitetephritoidbasaniteTephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9, and contains more than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
LithologyValuebasaniticFoiditefoiditoidbasanitic foiditeFoiditoid that contains less than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio that is greater than 0.5, with greater than 10 percent normative olivine.
LithologyValuebasicIgneousRockbasicIgneousMaterialbasic igneous rockIgneous rock with between 45 and 52 percent SiO2.
LithologyValuebauxitematerialFormedInSurficialEnvironmentbauxiteHighly aluminous material containing abundant aluminium hydroxides (gibbsite, less commonly boehmite, diaspore) and aluminium-substituted iron oxides or hydroxides and generally minor or negligible kaolin minerals; may contain up to 20 percent quartz. Commonly has a pisolitic or nodular texture, and may be cemented.
LithologyValuebiogenicSedimentsedimentbiogenic sedimentSediment composed of greater than 50 percent material of biogenic origin. Because the biogenic material may be skeletal remains that are not organic, all biogenic sediment is not necessarily organic-rich.
LithologyValuebiogenicSilicaSedimentaryRocknonClasticSiliceousSedimentaryRockbiogenic silica sedimentary rockSedimentary rock that consists of at least 50 percent silicate mineral material, deposited directly by biological processes at the depositional surface, or in particles formed by biological processes within the basin of deposition.
LithologyValuebitumen bitumenA composite material composed primarily of bitumen and mineral aggregates, e.g. gravel
LithologyValuebituminousCoalcoalbituminous coalCoal that has vitrinite mean random reflectance greater than 0.6% and less than 2.0% (determined in conformance with ISO 7404-5), or has a gross calorific value greater than 24 MJ/kg (determined in conformance with ISO 1928). Hard, black, organic rich sedimentary rock; contains less than 91 percent fixed carbon on a dry, mineral-matter-free basis, and greater than 13-14 percent volatiles (dry, ash free). Formed from the compaction or induration of variously altered plant remains similar to those of peaty deposits.
LithologyValueboniniteandesiteboniniteandesitic rock that contains more than 8 percent MgO. Typically consists of phenocrysts of protoenstatite, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and olivine in a glassy base full of crystallites, and exhibits textures characterisitc of rapid crystal growth.
LithologyValueboulderGravelSizeSedimentgravelSizeSedimentboulder gravel size sedimentSediment containing greater than 30 percent boulder-size particles (greater than 256 mm in diameter)
LithologyValueboundstonecarbonateSedimentaryRockboundstoneSedimentary carbonate rock with preserved biogenic texture, whose original components were bound and encrusted together during deposition by the action of plants and animals during deposition, and remained substantially in the position of growth.
LithologyValuebrecciaGougeSeriesfaultRelatedMaterialbreccia-gouge seriesFault material with features such as void spaces (filled or unfilled), or unconsolidated matrix material between fragments, indicating loss of cohesion during deformation. Includes fault-related breccia and gouge.
LithologyValuebuildingRubble building rubbleMaterial of various size originating from broken down buildings or former road coatings
LithologyValuecalcareousCarbonateSedimentcalcareousCarbonateSedimentaryMaterialcalcareous carbonate sedimentCarbonate sediment with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes lime-sediments.
LithologyValuecalcareousCarbonateSedimentaryMaterialcarbonateSedimentaryMaterialcalcareous carbonate sedimentary materialCarbonate sedimentary material of unspecified consolidation state with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes lime-sediments, limestone and dolomitic limestone.
LithologyValuecalcareousCarbonateSedimentaryRockcalcareousCarbonateSedimentaryMaterialcalcareous carbonate sedimentary rockCarbonate sedimentary rock with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes limestone and dolomitic limestone.
LithologyValuecarbonateMudcarbonateSedimentcarbonate mudCarbonate sediment composed of less than 25 percent clasts that have a maximum diameter more than 2 mm, and the ratio of sand size to mud size clasts is less than one.
LithologyValuecarbonateMudstonecarbonateSedimentaryRockcarbonate mudstoneMudstone that consists of greater than 50 percent carbonate minerals of any origin in the mud size fraction.
LithologyValuecarbonateOozecarbonateMudcarbonate oozeooze that consists of more than 50 percent carbonate skeletal remains
LithologyValuecarbonateRichMudmudSizeSedimentcarbonate rich mudMud size sediment that contains between 10 and 50 percent carbonate minerals in any size fraction. Carbonate origin is not specified.
LithologyValuecarbonateRichMudstonegenericMudstonecarbonate rich mudstoneMudstone that contains between 10 and 50 percent carbonate minerals in the mud size fraction. Carbonate origin is not specified.
LithologyValuecarbonateSedimentcarbonateSedimentaryMaterialcarbonate sedimentSediment in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals calcite, aragonite and dolomite, in particles of intrabasinal origin.
LithologyValuecarbonateSedimentaryRockcarbonateSedimentaryMaterialcarbonate sedimentary rockSedimentary rock in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals calcite, aragonite, magnesite or dolomite.
LithologyValuecarbonateWackestonecarbonateSedimentaryRockcarbonate wackestoneCarbonate sedimentary rock with discernible mud supported depositional texture and containing greater than 10 percent allochems, and constituent particles are of intrabasinal origin. If particles are not intrabasinal, categorization as a mudstone or wackestone should be considered.
LithologyValuecarbonatiteexoticCompositionIgneousRockcarbonatiteIgneous rock composed of more than 50 percent modal carbonate minerals.
LithologyValuecataclasiteSeriescompositeGenesisRockcataclasite seriesFault-related rock that maintained primary cohesion during deformation, with matrix comprising greater than 10 percent of rock mass; matrix is fine-grained material formed through grain size reduction by fracture as opposed to crystal plastic process that operate in mylonitic rock. Includes cataclasite, protocataclasite and ultracataclasite.
LithologyValuechalklimestonechalkA generally soft, white, very fine-grained, extremely pure, porous limestone. It forms under marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of skeletal elements from minute planktonic green algae (cocoliths), associated with varying proportions of larger microscopic fragments of bivalves, foraminifera and ostracods. It is common to find flint and chert nodules embedded in chalk.
LithologyValuechloriteActinoliteEpidoteMetamorphicRockmetamorphicRockchlorite actinolite epidote metamorphic rockMetamorphic rock characterized by 50 percent or more of combined chlorite, actinolite and epidote. Category for rocks generally named greenschist or greenstone.
LithologyValueclasticSedimentclasticSedimentaryMaterialclastic sedimentSediment in which at least 50 percent of the constituent particles were derived from erosion, weathering, or mass-wasting of pre-existing earth materials, and transported to the place of deposition by mechanical agents such as water, wind, ice and gravity.
LithologyValueclasticSedimentaryRockclasticSedimentaryMaterialclastic sedimentary rockSedimentary rock in which at least 50 percent of the constituent particles were derived from erosion, weathering, or mass-wasting of pre-existing earth materials, and transported to the place of deposition by mechanical agents such as water, wind, ice and gravity.
LithologyValueclaymudclayMud that consists of greater than 50 percent particles with grain size less than 0.004 mm
LithologyValueclaystonemudstoneclaystoneMudstone that contains no detectable silt, inferred to consist virtually entirely of clay-size particles.
LithologyValuecobbleGravelSizeSedimentgravelSizeSedimentcobble gravel size sedimentSediment containing greater than 30 percent cobble-size particles (64-256 mm in diameter)
LithologyValueconcrete concreteHardening composite construction material composed primarily of coarse gravel, cement and water
LithologyValueconglomerateclasticSedimentaryRockconglomerateClastic sedimentary rock composed of at least 30 percent rounded to subangular fragments larger than 2 mm in diameter; typically contains finer grained material in interstices between larger fragments. If more than 15 percent of the fine grained matrix is of indeterminant clastic or diagenetic origin and the fabric is matrix supported, may also be categorized as wackestone. If rock has unsorted or poorly sorted texture with a wide range of particle sizes, may also be categorized as diamictite.
LithologyValuecrystallineCarbonatecarbonateSedimentaryRockcrystalline carbonateCarbonate rock of indeterminate mineralogy in which diagenetic processes have obliterated any original depositional texture.
LithologyValuedaciteacidicIgneousRockdaciteFine grained or porphyritic crystalline rock that contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 20 and 60 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.65. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 4 and 5 or chemically in TAS Field O3. Typcially composed of quartz and sodic plagioclase with minor amounts of biotite and/or hornblende and/or pyroxene; fine-grained equivalent of granodiorite and tonalite.
LithologyValuediamictiteclasticSedimentaryRockdiamictiteUnsorted or poorly sorted, clastic sedimentary rock with a wide range of particle sizes including a muddy matrix. Biogenic materials that have such texture are excluded. Distinguished from conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone based on polymodality and lack of structures related to transport and deposition of sediment by moving air or water. If more than 10 percent of the fine grained matrix is of indeterminant clastic or diagenetic origin and the fabric is matrix supported, may also be categorized as wacke.
LithologyValuediamictonclasticSedimentdiamictonUnsorted or poorly sorted, clastic sediment with a wide range of particle sizes, including a muddy matrix. Biogenic materials that have such texture are excluded. Distinguished from conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone based on polymodality and lack of structures related to transport and deposition of sediment by moving air or water. Assignment to an other size class can be used in conjunction to indicate the dominant grain size.
LithologyValuedioritedioriticRockdioritePhaneritic crystalline rock consisting of intermediate plagioclase, commonly with hornblende and often with biotite or augite; colour index M less than 90, sodic plagioclase (An0-An50), no feldspathoid, and between 0 and 5 percent quartz. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 10 as diorite.
LithologyValuedioriticRockdioritoiddioritic rockPhaneritic crystalline rock with M less than 90, consisting of intermediate plagioclase, commonly with hornblende and often with biotite or augite. A dioritoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio (in the QAPF fraction) greater than 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 10, 10' and 10*.
LithologyValuedioritoidintermediateCompositionIgneousRockdioritoidPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock with M less than 90, consisting of intermediate plagioclase, commonly with hornblende and often with biotite or augite. Plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater that 0.65, and anorthite content of plagioclase is less than 50 percent. Less than 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and less than 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 (and their subdivisions).
LithologyValuedoleriticRockigneousRockdoleritic rockDark colored gabbroic (basaltic) or dioritic (andesitic) rock intermediate in grain size between basalt and gabbro and composed of plagioclase, pyroxene and opaque minerals; often with ophitic texture. Typically occurs as hypabyssal intrusions. Includes dolerite, microdiorite, diabase and microgabbro.
LithologyValuedolomitedolomiticOrMagnesianSedimentaryRockdolomitePure carbonate sedimentary rock with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValuedolomiticOrMagnesianSedimentaryMaterialcarbonateSedimentaryMaterialdolomitic or magnesian sedimentary materialCarbonate sedimentary material of unspecified consolidation degree with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1. Includes dolomite sediment, dolostone, lime dolostone and magnesite-stone.
LithologyValuedolomiticOrMagnesianSedimentaryRockcarbonateSedimentaryRockdolomitic or magnesian sedimentary rockCarbonate sedimentary rock with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1. Includes dolostone, lime dolostone and magnesite-stone.
LithologyValuedolomiticSedimentcarbonateSedimentdolomitic sedimentCarbonate sediment with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValueduricrustcompositeGenesisRockduricrustRock forming a hard crust or layer at or near the Earth's surface at the time of formation, e.g. in the upper horizons of a soil, characterized by structures indicative of pedogenic origin.
LithologyValueeclogitemetamorphicRockeclogiteMetamorphic rock composed of 75 percent or more (by volume) omphacite and garnet, both of which are present as major constituents, the amount of neither of them being higher than 75 percent (by volume); the presence of plagioclase precludes classification as an eclogite.
LithologyValueevaporitechemicalSedimentaryMaterialevaporiteNonclastic sedimentary rock composed of at least 50 percent non-carbonate salts, including chloride, sulfate or borate minerals; formed through precipitation of mineral salts from a saline solution (non-carbonate salt rock).
LithologyValueexoticAlkalineRockexoticCompositionIgneousRockexotic alkaline rockKimberlite, lamproite, or lamprophyre. Generally are potassic, mafic or ultramafic rocks. Olivine (commonly serpentinized in kimberlite), and phlogopite are significant constituents.
LithologyValueexoticCompositionIgneousRockigneousRockexotic composition igneous rockRock with 'exotic' mineralogical, textural or field setting characteristics; typically dark colored, with abundant phenocrysts. Criteria include: presence of greater than 10 percent melilite or leucite, or presence of kalsilite, or greater than 50 percent carbonate minerals. Includes Carbonatite, Melilitic rock, Kalsilitic rocks, Kimberlite, Lamproite, Leucitic rock and Lamprophyres.
LithologyValueexoticEvaporiteevaporiteexotic evaporiteEvaporite that is not 50 percent halite or 50 percent gypsum or anhydrite.
LithologyValuefineGrainedIgneousRockigneousRockfine grained igneous rockIgneous rock in which the framework of the rock consists of crystals that are too small to determine mineralogy with the unaided eye; framework may include up to 50 percent glass. A significant percentage of the rock by volume may be phenocrysts. Includes rocks that are generally called volcanic rocks.
LithologyValuefoidBearingAlkaliFeldsparSyenitealkaliFeldsparSyeniticRockfoid bearing alkali feldspar syeniteAlkali feldspar syenitic rock that contains 0-10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingAlkaliFeldsparTrachytealkaliFeldsparTrachyticRockfoid bearing alkali feldspar trachyteAlkali feldspar trachytic rock that contains no quartz and between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingAnorthositeanorthositicRockfoid bearing anorthositeAnorthositic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingDioritedioriticRockfoid bearing dioriteDioritic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingGabbrogabbroicRockfoid bearing gabbroGabbroic rock that contains 0-10 percent feldspathoid minerals and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingLatitelatiticRockfoid bearing latiteLatitic rock that contains no quartz and between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 8'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingMonzodioritemonzodioriticRockfoid bearing monzodioriteMonzodioritic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral.
LithologyValuefoidBearingMonzogabbromonzogabbroicRockfoid bearing monzogabbroMonzogabbroic rock that contains 0 to 10 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 9'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingMonzonitemonzoniticRockfoid bearing monzoniteMonzonitic rock that contains 0-10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 8'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingSyenitesyeniticRockfoid bearing syeniteSyenitic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. Defined modally in QAPF Field 7'.
LithologyValuefoidBearingTrachytetrachyticRockfoid bearing trachyteTrachytic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction, and no quartz. QAPF field 7'.
LithologyValuefoidDioritefoidDioritoidfoid dioriteFoid dioritoid in which the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 14.
LithologyValuefoidDioritoidphaneriticIgneousRockfoid dioritoidPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock in which M is less than 90, the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.5, feldspathoid minerals form 10-60 percent of the QAPF fraction, plagioclase has anorthite content less than 50 percent. These rocks typically contain large amounts of mafic minerals. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 13 and 14.
LithologyValuefoidGabbrofoidGabbroidfoid gabbroFoid gabbroid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 14.
LithologyValuefoidGabbroidphaneriticIgneousRockfoid gabbroidPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock in which M is less than 90, the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.5, feldspathoids form 10-60 percent of the QAPF fraction, and plagioclase has anorthite content greater than 50 percent. These rocks typically contain large amounts of mafic minerals. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 13 and 14.
LithologyValuefoidMonzodioritefoidDioritoidfoid monzodioriteFoid dioritoid in which the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is between 0.1 and 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 13.
LithologyValuefoidMonzogabbrofoidGabbroidfoid monzogabbroFoid gabbroid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.5 and 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 13.
LithologyValuefoidMonzosyenitefoidSyenitoidfoid monzosyeniteFoid syenitoid rock that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio of between 0.1 and 0.5. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 12.
LithologyValuefoidSyenitefoidSyenitoidfoid syeniteFoid syenitoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio of less than 0.1. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 11.
LithologyValuefoidSyenitoidphaneriticIgneousRockfoid syenitoidPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock with M less than 90, contains between 10 and 60 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.5. Includes QAPF fields 11 and 12.
LithologyValuefoiditefoiditoidfoiditeFoiditoid that contains greater than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction.
LithologyValuefoiditoidfineGrainedIgneousRockfoiditoidFine grained crystalline rock containing less than 90 percent mafic minerals and more than 60 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 15 or chemically in TAS field F.
LithologyValuefoidolitephaneriticIgneousRockfoidolitePhaneritic crystalline rock containing more than 60 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 15
LithologyValuefoliatedMetamorphicRockmetamorphicRockfoliated metamorphic rockMetamorphic rock in which 10 percent or more of the contained mineral grains are elements in a planar or linear fabric. Cataclastic or glassy character precludes classification with this concept.
LithologyValuefragmentalIgneousRockfragmentalIgneousMaterialfragmental igneous rockIgneous rock in which greater than 75 percent of the rock consists of fragments produced as a result of igneous rock-forming process. Includes pyroclastic rocks, autobreccia associated with lava flows and intrusive breccias. Excludes deposits reworked by epiclastic processes (see Tuffite)
LithologyValueframestonecarbonateSedimentaryRockframestoneCarbonate reef rock consisting of a rigid framework of colonies, shells or skeletons, with internal cavities filled with fine sediment; usually created through the activities of colonial organisms.
LithologyValuegabbrogabbroicRockgabbroGabbroic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 10 as gabbro.
LithologyValuegabbroicRockbasicIgneousRockgabbroic rockGabbroid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9 in the QAPF fraction. Includes QAPF fields 10*, 10, and 10'. This category includes the various categories defined in LeMaitre et al. (2002) based on the mafic mineralogy, but apparently not subdivided based on the quartz/feldspathoid content.
LithologyValuegabbroidphaneriticIgneousRockgabbroidPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock that contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, and up to 20 percent quartz or up to 10 percent feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. The ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater than 0.65, and anorthite content of the plagioclase is greater than 50 percent. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 and their subdivisions.
LithologyValuegenericConglomeratesedimentaryRockgeneric conglomerateSedimentary rock composed of at least 30 percent rounded to subangular fragments larger than 2 mm in diameter; typically contains finer grained material in interstices between larger fragments. If more than 15 percent of the fine grained matrix is of indeterminant clastic or diagenetic origin and the fabric is matrix supported, may also be categorized as wackestone. If rock has unsorted or poorly sorted texture with a wide range of particle sizes, may also be categorized as diamictite.
LithologyValuegenericMudstonesedimentaryRockgeneric mudstoneSedimentary rock consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud to sand ratio greater than 1. Clasts may be of any composition or origin.
LithologyValuegenericSandstonesedimentaryRockgeneric sandstoneSedimentary rock in which less than 30 percent of particles are greater than 2 mm in diameter (gravel) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1.
LithologyValueglassRichIgneousRockigneousRockglass rich igneous rockIgneous rock that contains greater than 50 percent massive glass.
LithologyValueglassyIgneousRockglassRichIgneousRockglassy igneous rockIgneous rock that consists of greater than 80 percent massive glass.
LithologyValueglaukophanschiefermetamorphicRockglaukophanschieferA metamorphic rock of roughly basaltic composition, defined by the presence of glaucophane with lawsonite or epidote. Other minerals that may be present include jadeite, albite, chlorite, garnet, and muscovite (phengitic white mica). Typically fine-grained, dark colored. Category for rocks commonly referred to as blueschist.
LithologyValuegneissfoliatedMetamorphicRockgneissFoliated metamorphic rock with bands or lenticles rich in granular minerals alternating with bands or lenticles rich in minerals with a flaky or elongate prismatic habit. Mylonitic foliation or well developed, continuous schistosity (greater than 50 percent of the rock consists of grains participate in a planar or linear fabric) precludes classification with this concept.
LithologyValuegrainstonecarbonateSedimentaryRockgrainstoneCarbonate sedimentary rock with recognizable depositional fabric that is grain-supported, and constituent particles are of intrabasinal origin; contains little or no mud matrix. Distinction from sandstone is based on interpretation of intrabasinal origin of clasts and grain-supported fabric, but grainstone definition does not include a grain size criteria.
LithologyValuegranitegranitoidgranitePhaneritic crystalline rock consisting of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase (typically sodic) in variable amounts, usually with biotite and/or hornblende. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 3.
LithologyValuegranitoidacidicIgneousRockgranitoidPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting of quartz, alkali feldspar and/or plagioclase. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 2, 3, 4 and 5 as alkali feldspar granite, granite, granodiorite or tonalite.
LithologyValuegranodioritegranitoidgranodioritePhaneritic crystalline rock consisting essentially of quartz, sodic plagioclase and lesser amounts of alkali feldspar with minor hornblende and biotite. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 4.
LithologyValuegranofelsmetamorphicRockgranofelsMetamorphic rock with granoblastic fabric and very little or no foliation (less than 10 percent of the mineral grains in the rock are elements in a planar or linear fabric). Grainsize not specified.
LithologyValuegranulitemetamorphicRockgranuliteMetamorphic rock of high metamorphic grade in which Fe-Mg silicate minerals are dominantly hydroxl-free; feldspar must be present, and muscovite is absent; rock contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, less than 75 percent calcite and/or dolomite, less than 75 percent quartz, less than 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), and less than 50 percent calc-silicate minerals.
LithologyValuegravelclasticSedimentgravelClastic sediment containing greater than 30 percent gravel-size particles (greater than 2.0 mm diameter). Gravel in which more than half of the particles are of epiclastic origin
LithologyValuegravelSizeSedimentsedimentgravel size sedimentSediment containing greater than 30 percent gravel-size particles (greater than 2.0 mm diameter). Composition or gensis of clasts not specified.
LithologyValuegypsumOrAnhydriteevaporitegypsum or anhydriteEvaporite composed of at least 50 percent gypsum or anhydrite.
LithologyValuehighMagnesiumFineGrainedIgneousRockfineGrainedIgneousRockhigh magnesium fine grained igneous rockfine-grained igneous rock that contains unusually high concentration of MgO. For rocks that contain greater than 52 percent silica, MgO must be greater than 8 percent. For rocks containing less than 52 percent silica, MgO must be greater than 12 percent.
LithologyValuehornblenditephaneriticIgneousRockhornblenditeUltramafic rock that consists of greater than 40 percent hornblende plus pyroxene and has a hornblende to pyroxene ratio greater than 1. Includes olivine hornblendite, olivine-pyroxene hornblendite, pyroxene hornblendite, and hornblendite.
LithologyValuehornfelsgranofelshornfelsGranofels formed by contact metamorphism, composed of a mosaic of equidimensional grains in a characteristically granoblastic or decussate matrix; porphyroblasts or relict phenocrysts may be present. Typically fine grained.
LithologyValuehybridSedimentsedimenthybrid sedimentSediment that does not fit any of the other sediment composition/genesis categories. Sediment consisting of three or more components which form more than 5 percent but less than 50 precent of the material.
LithologyValuehybridSedimentaryRocksedimentaryRockhybrid sedimentary rockSedimentary rock that does not fit any of the other composition/genesis categories. Sedimentary rock consisting of three or more components which form more than 5 percent but less than 50 precent of the material.
LithologyValueimpureCalcareousCarbonateSedimentcalcareousCarbonateSedimentimpure calcareous carbonate sedimentCarbonate sediment in which between 50 and 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValueimpureCarbonateSedimentcarbonateSedimentimpure carbonate sedimentCarbonate sediment in which between 50 and 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin.
LithologyValueimpureCarbonateSedimentaryRockcarbonateSedimentaryRockimpure carbonate sedimentary rockSedimentary rock in which between 50 and 90 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are composed of carbonate minerals.
LithologyValueimpureDolomitedolomiticOrMagnesianSedimentaryRockimpure dolomiteImpure carbonate sedimentary rock with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValueimpureDolomiticSedimentdolomiticSedimentimpure dolomitic sedimentCarbonate sediment in which between 50 and 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and the ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValueimpureLimestonecalcareousCarbonateSedimentaryRockimpure limestoneImpure carbonate sedimentary rock with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValueintermediateCompositionIgneousRockigneousRockintermediate composition igneous rockIgneous rock with between 52 and 63 percent SiO2.
LithologyValueironRichSedimentironRichSedimentaryMaterialiron rich sedimentSediment that consists of at least 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), as determined by hand-lens or petrographic analysis. Corresponds to a rock typically containing 15 percent iron by weight.
LithologyValueironRichSedimentaryMaterialchemicalSedimentaryMaterialiron rich sedimentary materialSedimentary material of unspecified consolidation state that consists of at least 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), as determined by hand-lens or petrographic analysis. Corresponds to a rock typically containing 15 percent iron by weight.
LithologyValueironRichSedimentaryRockironRichSedimentaryMaterialiron rich sedimentary rockSedimentary rock that consists of at least 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), as determined by hand-lens or petrographic analysis. Corresponds to a rock typically containing 15 percent iron by weight.
LithologyValuekalsiliticAndMeliliticRocksexoticCompositionIgneousRockkalsilitic and melilitic rocksIgneous rock containing greater than 10 percent melilite or kalsilite. Typically undersaturated, ultrapotassic (kalsilitic rocks) or calcium-rich (melilitic rocks) mafic or ultramafic rocks.
LithologyValuecoalorganicRichSedimentaryRockcoalA consolidated organic sedimentary material having less than 75% moisture. This category includes low, medium, and high rank coals according to International Classification of In-Seam Coal (United Nations, 1998), thus including lignite. Sapropelic coal is not distinguished in this category from humic coals. Formed from the compaction or induration of variously altered plant remains similar to those of peaty deposits.
LithologyValuekomatiiticRockhighMagnesiumFineGrainedIgneousRockkomatiitic rockUltramafic, magnesium-rich volcanic rock, typically with spinifex texture of intergrown skeletal and bladed olivine and pyroxene crystals set in abundant glass. Includes komatiite and meimechite.
LithologyValuelatitelatiticRocklatiteLatitic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 8.
LithologyValuelatiticRocktrachytoidlatitic rockTrachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.35 and 0.65. QAPF fields 8, 8' and 8*.
LithologyValuelignitecoalligniteCoal that has a gross calorific value less than 24 MJ/kg (determined in conformance with ISO 1928), and vitrinite mean random reflectance less than 0.6% (determined in conformance with ISO 7404-5). Gross calorific value is recalculated to a moist, ash free basis using bed moisture (determined according to ISO 1015 or ISO 5068). Includes all low-rank coals, including sub-bitiminous coal. A consolidated, dull, soft brown to black coal having many readily discernible plant fragments set in a finer grained organic matrix. Tends to crack and fall apart on drying. Operationally sub-bituminous and bitiminous coal are qualitatively distinguished based on brown streak for sub-bitiminous coal and black streak for bituminous coal.
LithologyValuelimestonecalcareousCarbonateSedimentaryRocklimestonePure carbonate sedimentary rock with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes limestone and dolomitic limestone.
LithologyValuemarblemetamorphicRockmarbleMetamorphic rock consisting of greater than 75 percent fine- to coarse-grained recrystallized calcite and/or dolomite; usually with a granoblastic, saccharoidal texture.
LithologyValuemetamorphicRockcompositeGenesisRockmetamorphic rockRock formed by solid-state mineralogical, chemical and/or structural changes to a pre-existing rock, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress and chemical environment.
LithologyValuemetasomaticRockcompositeGenesisRockmetasomatic rockRock that has fabric and composition indicating open-system mineralogical and chemical changes in response to interaction with a fluid phase, typically water rich.
LithologyValuemicaSchistschistmica schistA schist that consists of more than 50 percent mica minerals, typically muscovite or biotite. Special type included to distinguish this common variety of schist.
LithologyValuemigmatitemetamorphicRockmigmatiteSilicate metamorphic rock that is pervasively heterogeneous on a decimeter to meter scale that typically consists of darker and lighter parts; the darker parts usually exhibit features of metamorphic rocks whereas the lighter parts are of igneous-looking appearance.
LithologyValuemineDumpMaterial mine dump materialspoil, overburden and other material excavated in mining
LithologyValuemonzodioritemonzodioriticRockmonzodioritePhaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting of sodic plagioclase (An0 to An50), alkali feldspar, hornblende and biotite, with or without pyroxene, and 0 to 5 percent quartz. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 9.
LithologyValuemonzodioriticRockdioritoidmonzodioritic rockPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting of sodic plagioclase (An0 to An50), alkali feldspar, hornblende and biotite, with or without pyroxene, and 0 to 10 percent feldspathoid or 0 to 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. Plagioclase to total feldspar ratio in the QAPF fraction is between 0.65 and 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 9, 9' and 9* as monzodiorite, foid-beaing monzodiorite, and quartz monzodiorite.
LithologyValuemonzogabbromonzogabbroicRockmonzogabbroMonzogabbroic rock that contains between 0 an 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 9 .
LithologyValuemonzogabbroicRockgabbroidmonzogabbroic rockGabbroid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.65 and 0.9. QAPF field 9, 9 prime and 9 asterisk
LithologyValuemonzogranitegranitemonzograniteGranite that has a plagiolcase to total feldspar ratio between 0.35 and 0.65. QAPF field 3b.
LithologyValuemonzonitemonzoniticRockmonzoniteMonzonitic rock that contains 0-5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 8.
LithologyValuemonzoniticRocksyenitoidmonzonitic rockSyenitoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.35 and 0.65. Includes rocks in QAPF fields 8, 8*, and 8'.
LithologyValuemudclasticSedimentmudClastic sediment consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud-size to sand-size particle ratio greater than 1. More than half of the particles are of epiclastic origin.
LithologyValuemudSizeSedimentsedimentmud size sedimentSediment consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud-size to sand-size particle ratio greater than 1. Clasts may be of any composition or origin.
LithologyValuemudstoneclasticSedimentaryRockmudstoneClastic sedimentary rock consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud to sand ratio greater than 1.
LithologyValuemyloniticRockfaultRelatedMaterialmylonitic rockMetamorphic rock characterised by a foliation resulting from tectonic grain size reduction, in which more than 10 percent of the rock volume has undergone grain size reduction. Includes protomylonite, mylonite, ultramylonite, and blastomylonite.
LithologyValuenonClasticSiliceousSedimentnonClasticSiliceousSedimentaryMaterialnon-clastic siliceous sedimentSediment that consists of at least 50 percent silicate mineral material, deposited directly by chemical or biological processes at the depositional surface, or in particles formed by chemical or biological processes within the basin of deposition.
LithologyValuenonClasticSiliceousSedimentaryRocknonClasticSiliceousSedimentaryMaterialnon-clastic siliceous sedimentary rockSedimentary rock that consists of at least 50 percent silicate mineral material, deposited directly by chemical or biological processes at the depositional surface, or in particles formed by chemical or biological processes within the basin of deposition.
LithologyValueoozebiogenicSedimentoozeBiogenic sediment consisting of less than 1 percent gravel-size (greater than or equal to 2 mm) particles, with a sand to mud ratio less than 1 to 9, and less than 50 percent carbonate minerals.
LithologyValueorganicBearingMudstonegenericMudstoneorganic bearing mudstoneMudstone that contains a significant amount of organic carbon, typically kerogen. Commonly finely laminated, brown or black in color.
LithologyValueorganicRichSedimentbiogenicSedimentorganic rich sedimentSediment with color, composition, texture and apparent density indicating greater than 50 percent organic content by weight on a moisture-free basis.
LithologyValueorganicRichSedimentaryRockorganicRichSedimentaryMaterialorganic rich sedimentary rockSedimentary rock with color, composition, texture and apparent density indicating greater than 50 percent organic content by weight on a moisture-free basis.
LithologyValueorthogneissgneissorthogneissA gneiss with mineralogy and texture indicating derivation from a phaneritic igneous rock protolith. Typically consists of abundant feldspar, with quartz, and variable hornblende, biotite, and muscovite, with a relatively homogeneous character.
LithologyValuepackstonecarbonateSedimentaryRockpackstoneCarbonate sedimentary rock with discernible grain supported depositional texture, containing greater than 10 percent grains, and constituent particles are of intrabasinal origin; intergranular spaces are filled by matrix.
LithologyValueparagneissgneissparagneissA gneiss with mineralogy and texture indicating derivation from a sedimentary rock protolith. Typically consists of abundant quartz, mica, or calcsilicate minerals; aluminosilicate minerals or garnet commonly present. Composition of rock tends to be more variable on a decimetric scale that in orthogneiss.
LithologyValuepeatorganicRichSedimentpeatUnconsolidated organic-rich sediment composed of at least 50 percent semi-carbonised plant remains; individual remains commonly seen with unaided eye; yellowish brown to brownish black; generally fibrous texture; can be plastic or friable. In its natural state it can be readily cut and has a very high moisture content, generally greater than 90 percent. Liptinite to Inertinite ratio is less than one (Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp.)
LithologyValuepebbleGravelSizeSedimentgravelSizeSedimentpebble gravel size sedimentSediment containing greater than 30 percent pebble-size particles (2.0 -64 mm in diameter)
LithologyValuepegmatitephaneriticIgneousRockpegmatiteExceptionally coarse grained crystalline rock with interlocking crystals; most grains are 1cm or more diameter; composition is generally that of granite, but the term may refer to the coarse grained facies of any type of igneous rock;usually found as irregular dikes, lenses, or veins associated with plutons or batholiths.
LithologyValueperidotitephaneriticIgneousRockperidotiteUltramafic rock consisting of more than 40 percent (by volume) olivine with pyroxene and/or amphibole and little or no feldspar. Commonly altered to serpentinite. Includes rocks defined modally in the ultramafic rock classification as dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite, wehrlite, olivinite, pyroxene peridotite, pyroxene hornblende peridotite or hornblende peridotite.
LithologyValuephaneriticIgneousRockigneousRockphaneritic igneous rockIgneous rock in which the framework of the rock consists of individual crystals that can be discerned with the unaided eye. Bounding grain size is on the order of 32 to 100 microns. Igneous rocks with 'exotic' composition are excluded from this concept.
LithologyValuephonolitephonolitoidphonolitePhonolitoid in which the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is less than 0.1. Rock consists of alkali feldspar, feldspathoid minerals, and mafic minerals.
LithologyValuephonoliticBasanitetephritoidphonolitic basaniteTephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.5 and 0.9, and contains more than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
LithologyValuephonoliticFoiditefoiditoidphonolitic foiditeFoiditoid that contains less than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio that is less than 0.5
LithologyValuephonoliticTephritetephritoidphonolitic tephriteTephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.5 and 0.9, and contains less than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
LithologyValuephonolitoidfineGrainedIgneousRockphonolitoidFine grained igneous rock than contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 10 and 60 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.5. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 11 and 12, and TAS field Ph.
LithologyValuephosphateRichSedimentphosphateRichSedimentaryMaterialphosphate rich sedimentSediment in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are phosphate minerals.
LithologyValuephosphateRichSedimentaryMaterialsedimentaryMaterialphosphate rich sedimentary materialSedimentary material in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are phosphate minerals.
LithologyValuephosphoritephosphateRichSedimentaryMaterialphosphoriteSedimentary rock in which at least 50 percent of the primary or recrystallized constituents are phosphate minerals. Most commonly occurs as a bedded primary or reworked secondary marine rock, composed of microcrystalline carbonate fluorapatite in the form of lamina, pellets, oolites and nodules, and skeletal, shell and bone fragments.
LithologyValuephyllitefoliatedMetamorphicRockphylliteRock with a well developed, continuous schistosity, an average grain size between 0.1 and 0.5 millimeters, and a silvery sheen on cleavage surfaces. Individual phyllosilicate grains are barely visible with the unaided eye.
LithologyValuephyllonitemyloniticRockphylloniteMylonitic rock composed largely of fine-grained mica that imparts a sheen to foliation surfaces; may have flaser lamination, isoclinal folding, and deformed veins, which indicate significant shearing. Macroscopically resembles phyllite, but formed by mechanical degradation of initially coarser rock.
LithologyValueporphyryigneousRockporphyryIgneous rock that contains conspicuous phenocrysts in a finer grained groundmass; groundmass itself may be phaneritic or fine-grained.
LithologyValuepureCalcareousCarbonateSedimentcalcareousCarbonateSedimentpure calcareous carbonate sedimentCarbonate sediment in which greater than 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValuepureCarbonateMudstonecarbonateMudstonepure carbonate mudstoneMudstone that consists of greater than 90 percent carbonate minerals of intrabasinal orign in the mud fraction, and contains less than 10 percent allochems. The original depositional texture is preserved and fabric is matrix supported. Carbonate mudstone of Dunham (1962)
LithologyValuepureCarbonateSedimentcarbonateSedimentpure carbonate sedimentCarbonate sediment in which greater than 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin.
LithologyValuepureCarbonateSedimentaryRockcarbonateSedimentaryRockpure carbonate sedimentary rockSedimentary rock in which greater than 90 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are carbonate minerals.
LithologyValuepureDolomiticSedimentdolomiticSedimentpure dolomitic sedimentCarbonate sediment in which greater than 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
LithologyValuepyroclasticMaterialfragmentalIgneousMaterialpyroclastic materialFragmental igneous material that consists of more than 75 percent of particles formed by disruption as a direct result of volcanic action.
LithologyValuepyroclasticRockfragmentalIgneousRockpyroclastic rockFragmental igneous rock that consists of greater than 75 percent fragments produced as a direct result of eruption or extrusion of magma from within the earth onto its surface. Includes autobreccia associated with lava flows and excludes deposits reworked by epiclastic processes.
LithologyValuepyroxenitephaneriticIgneousRockpyroxeniteUltramafic phaneritic igneous rock composed almost entirely of one or more pyroxenes and occasionally biotite, hornblende and olivine. Includes rocks defined modally in the ultramafic rock classification as olivine pyroxenite, olivine-hornblende pyroxenite, pyroxenite, orthopyroxenite, clinopyroxenite and websterite.
LithologyValuequartzAlkaliFeldsparSyenitealkaliFeldsparSyeniticRockquartz alkali feldspar syeniteAlkali feldspar syenitic rock that contains 5 to 20 percent quartz and no feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6*.
LithologyValuequartzAlkaliFeldsparTrachytealkaliFeldsparTrachyticRockquartz alkali feldspar trachyteAlkali feldspar trachytic rock that contains and between 5 and 20 percent quartz mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6*.
LithologyValuequartzAnorthositeanorthositicRockquartz anorthositeAnorthositic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10*.
LithologyValuequartzDioritedioriticRockquartz dioriteDioritic rock that contains between 5 to 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10*.
LithologyValuequartzGabbrogabbroicRockquartz gabbroGabbroic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10*.
LithologyValuequartzLatitelatiticRockquartz latiteLatitic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 8*.
LithologyValuequartzMonzodioritemonzodioriticRockquartz monzodioriteMonzodioritic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz.
LithologyValuequartzMonzogabbromonzogabbroicRockquartz monzogabbroMonzogabbroic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 9*.
LithologyValuequartzMonzonitemonzoniticRockquartz monzoniteMonzonitic rock that contains 5-20 percent quartz iin the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 8*.
LithologyValuequartzRichIgneousRockacidicIgneousRockquartz rich igneous rockPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock that contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals and contains greater than 60 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction.
LithologyValuequartzSyenitesyeniticRockquartz syeniteSyenitic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. Defined modally in QAPF Field 7*.
LithologyValuequartzTrachytetrachyticRockquartz trachyteTrachytic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 7*.
LithologyValuequartzitemetamorphicRockquartziteMetamorphic rock consisting of greater than or equal to 75 percent quartz; typically granoblastic texture.
LithologyValueresidualMaterialmaterialFormedInSurficialEnvironmentresidual materialMaterial of composite origin resulting from weathering processes at the Earth’s surface, with genesis dominated by removal of chemical constituents by aqueous leaching. Miinor clastic, chemical, or organic input may also contribute. Consolidation state is not inherent in definition, but typically material is unconsolidated or weakly consolidated.
LithologyValuerhyoliterhyolitoidrhyoliterhyolitoid in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is between 0.1 and 0.65.
LithologyValuerhyolitoidacidicIgneousRockrhyolitoidfine_grained_igneous_rock consisting of quartz and alkali feldspar, with minor plagioclase and biotite, in a microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline or glassy groundmass. Flow texture is common. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 2 and 3 or chemically in TAS Field R as rhyolite. QAPF normative definition is based on modal mineralogy thus: less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 20 and 60 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and ratio of plagioclse to total feldspar is less than 0.65.
LithologyValuerockSaltevaporiterock saltEvaporite composed of at least 50 percent halite.
LithologyValuesandclasticSedimentsandClastic sediment in which less than 30 percent of particles are gravel (greater than 2 mm in diameter) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1. More than half of the particles are of epiclastic origin.
LithologyValuesandSizeSedimentsedimentsand size sedimentSediment in which less than 30 percent of particles are gravel (greater than 2 mm in diameter) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1. Composition or genesis of clasts not specified.
LithologyValuesandstoneclasticSedimentaryRocksandstoneClastic sedimentary rock in which less than 30 percent of particles are greater than 2 mm in diameter (gravel) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1.
LithologyValuesapropelorganicRichSedimentsapropelJelly like organic rich sediment composed of plant remains, usually algal. Liptinite to Inertinite ratio is greater than one (Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp.)
LithologyValueschistfoliatedMetamorphicRockschistFoliated phaneritic metamorphic rock with well developed, continuous schistosity, meaning that greater than 50 percent of the rock by volume is mineral grains with a thin tabular, lamellar, or acicular prismatic crystallographic habit that are oriented in a continuous planar or linear fabric.
LithologyValueserpentinitemetamorphicRockserpentiniteRock consisting of more than 75 percent serpentine-group minerals, eg. antigorite, chrysotile or lizardite; accessory chlorite, talc and magnetite may be present; derived from hydration of ferromagnesian silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene.
LithologyValuesewageSludge sewage sludgemore or less liquid (when disposed) by-products of wastewater treatment
LithologyValueshalemudstoneshaleLaminated mudstone that will part or break along thin, closely spaced layers parallel to stratification.
LithologyValuesilicateMudmudSizeSedimentsilicate mudMud size sediment that consists of less than 50 percent carbonate minerals.
LithologyValuesilicateMudstonegenericMudstonesilicate mudstoneMudstone that contains less than 10 percent carbonate minerals.
LithologyValuesiliceousOozenonClasticSiliceousSedimentsiliceous oozeooze that consists of more than 50 percent siliceous skeletal remains
LithologyValuesiltmudsiltMud that consists of greater than 50 percent silt-size grains.
LithologyValuesiltstonemudstonesiltstoneMudstone that contains detectable silt. (see comments)
LithologyValueskarnmetasomaticRockskarnMetasomatic rock consisting mainly of Ca-, Mg-, Fe-, or Mn-silicate minerals, which are free from or poor in water. Typically formed at the contact between a silicate rock or magma and a carbonate rock.
LithologyValueslag slagby-product of smelting ore and processing metals
LithologyValueslatefoliatedMetamorphicRockslateCompact, fine grained rock with an average grain size less than 0.032 millimeter and a well developed schistosity (slaty cleavage), and hence can be split into slabs or thin plates.
LithologyValuesludge sludgeMore or less liquid (when disposed) by-products of industrial processes
LithologyValuesoilImprover soil improverMaterial added to soil to improve plant growth and health
LithologyValuespilitemetasomaticRockspiliteAltered basic to intermediate composition fine-grained igneous rock in which the feldspar is partially or completely composed of of albite, typically accompanied by chlorite, calcite, quartz, epidote, prehnite, and low-tempaerature hydrous crystallization products. Preservation of eruptive volcanic features is typical.
LithologyValuesyenitesyeniticRocksyeniteSyenitic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Defined modally in QAPF Field 7.
LithologyValuesyeniticRocksyenitoidsyenitic rockSyenitoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.35. Includes rocks in QAPF fields 7, 7*, and 7'.
LithologyValuesyenitoidphaneriticIgneousRocksyenitoidPhaneritic crystalline igneous rock with M less than 90, consisting mainly of alkali feldspar and plagioclase; minor quartz or nepheline may be present, along with pyroxene, amphibole or biotite. Ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is less than 0.65, quartz forms less than 20 percent of QAPF fraction, and feldspathoid minerals form less than 10 percent of QAPF fraction. Includes rocks classified in QAPF fields 6, 7 and 8 and their subdivisions.
LithologyValuesyenogranitegranitesyenograniteGranite that has a plagiolcase to total feldspar ratio between 0.10 and 0.35. QAPF field 3a.
LithologyValuetephranaturalUnconsolidatedMaterialtephraUnconsolidated pyroclastic material in which greater than 75 percent of the fragments are deposited as a direct result of volcanic processes and the deposit has not been reworked by epiclastic processes. Includes ash, lapilli tephra, bomb tephra, block tephra and unconsolidated agglomerate.
LithologyValuetephritetephritoidtephriteTephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9, and contains less than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
LithologyValuetephriticFoiditefoiditoidtephritic foiditeFoiditoid that contains less than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio that is greater than 0.5, with less than 10 percent normative olivine
LithologyValuetephriticPhonolitephonolitoidtephritic phonolitePhonolitoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.5. Broadly corresponds to TAS tephriphonolite of TAS field U3.
LithologyValuetephritoidfineGrainedIgneousRocktephritoidFine grained igneous rock than contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 10 and 60 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.5. Includes rocks classified in QAPF field 13 and 14 or chemically in TAS field U1 as basanite or tephrite.
LithologyValuetholeiiticBasaltbasalttholeiitic basaltTholeiitic basalt is defined here to contain 2 pyroxene phases and interstitial quartz or tridymite or cristobalite in the groundmass. Pyroxene (augite and orthopyroxene or pigeonite) and calcium-rich plagioclase are common phenocryst minerals. Olivine may also be a phenocryst, and when present, may have rims of pigeonite. Only in tholeiitic basalt is olivine in reaction relationship with melt. Interstitial siliceous residue may be present, and is often glassy. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively poor in sodium. This category includes most basalts of the ocean floor, most large oceanic islands, and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau.
LithologyValuetonalitegranitoidtonaliteGranitoid consisting of quartz and intermediate plagioclase, usually with biotite and amphibole. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 5; ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater than 0.9.
LithologyValuetopsoil topsoilThe dark-colored upper portion af a soil, varying in depth according to soil type.
LithologyValuetrachytetrachyticRocktrachyteTrachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.35, between 0 and 5 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and no feldspathoid minerals. QAPF field 7.
LithologyValuetrachyticRocktrachytoidtrachytic rockTrachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.35. QAPF fields 7, 7', and 7*.
LithologyValuetrachytoidfineGrainedIgneousRocktrachytoidFine grained igneous rock than contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, less than 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and less than 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.65. Mafic minerals typically include amphibole or mica; typically porphyritic. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 6, 7 and 8 (with subdivisions) or chemically in TAS Field T as trachyte or latite.
LithologyValuetravertinechemicalSedimentaryMaterialtravertineBiotically or abiotically precipitated calcium carbonate, from spring-fed, heated, or ambient-temperature water. May be white and spongy, various shades of orange, tan or gray, and ranges to dense, banded or laminated rock. Macrophytes, bryophytes, algae, cyanobacteria and other organisms often colonize the surface of travertine and may be preserved, to produce the porous varieties.
LithologyValuetuffBrecciaAgglomerateOrPyroclasticBrecciapyroclasticRocktuff-breccia, agglomerate, or pyroclastic brecciaPyroclastic rock in which greater than 25 percent of particles are greater than 64 mm in largest dimension. Includes agglomerate, pyroclastic breccia of Gillespie and Styles (1999)
LithologyValueultrabasicIgneousRockigneousRockultrabasic igneous rockIgneous rock with less than 45 percent SiO2.
LithologyValueultramaficIgneousRockigneousRockultramafic igneous rockIgneous rock that consists of greater than 90 percent mafic minerals.
LithologyValuewackesandstonewackeClastic sandstone with more than 10 percent matrix of indeterminate detrital or diagenetic nature. Matrix is mud size silicate minerals (clay, feldspar, quartz, rock fragments, and alteration products).
LithologyValuewaste wasteDisposed, non-liquid by-products of any kind, e.g. domestic or industrial waste
CampaignTypeValueprocessing processingdata processing campaign
CampaignTypeValueinterpretation interpretationinterpretation campaign
CurveModelTypeValuecompositLog compositLogA set of processed or interpreted physical parameter curves along the axis of a borehole
CurveModelTypeValuelayerModel layerModel1D layer model, encoded as discrete curve coverage.
CurveModelTypeValueseismicTimeSection seismicTimeSectionSeries of seismic property - two way time functions referenced to CDP locations
NetworkNameValueother otherother network
PlatformTypeValueother otherMeasurement carried out from other type of platform
ProfileTypeValueflightLine flight lineGeophysical measurement carried out from a flying platform along a line
ProfileTypeValueconePenetrationTest cone penetration testGeotechnical and geophysical measurement carried out by pushing down an instrumented cone into the ground. Also known as CPT.
ProfileTypeValueverticalSeismicProfile vertical seismic profileGeophysical measurement used to record acoustic response of waves travelling between a borehole and the surface. Also known as VSP.
ProfileTypeValuegeoradarProfile georadar profileGeophysical measurement used to record electromagnetic response from a radar source along a profile in order to define EM properties in a cross section of the earth.
StationRankValuesurveyStation survey stationOrdinary survey station
StationTypeValuetimeDomainEMSounding time-domain em soundingGeophysical station to measure underground electric resistivity changes in depth using time domain signal. Also known as TDEM sounding.
StationTypeValuefrequencyDomainEMSounding frequency domain em soundingGeophysical station to measure underground electric resistivity changes in depth using frequency domain signal , Also known as FDEM sounding.
StationTypeValueradiometricStation radiometric stationGeophysical station to observe radioactive radiation intensity
SurveyTypeValue2DSeismicSurvey 2D seismic surveyCampaign of 2D seismic measurementsA time domain EM survey may include any number of TDEM soundings. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValue3DSeismicSurvey 3D seismic surveyCampaign of 3D seismic measurementsA frequency domain EM survey may include any number of FDEM soundings. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValueboreholeLoggingSurvey borehole logging surveyCampaign of borehole logging measurementsA magnetotelluric survey may include any number of MT soundings. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValue1DResistivitySurvey 1D resistivity surveyCampaign of Vertical Electric Sounding measurementsA georadar survey may include one or more georadar profiles. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValue2DResistivitySurvey 2D resistivity surveyCampaign of 2D Multielectrode DC measurementsA CPT survey may include any number of CPT soundings. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValuetimeDomainEMSurvey time-domain EM surveyCampaign of Time domain EM sounding measurementsA VSP survey may include any number of vertical seismic profiles. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValuefrequencyDomainEMSurvey frequency domain EM SurveyCampaign of FrequencyDomain EM sounding measurementsA sonar survey may include any number of individual sonar measurements. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValuemagnetotelluricSurvey magnetotelluric surveyCampaign of magnetotelluric sounding measurementsA magnetotelluric survey may include any number of MT soundings. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValuegeoRadarSurvey georadar surveyCampaign of geoRadar measurementsA georadar survey may include one or more georadar profiles. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValueCPTSurvey CPT surveyCampaign of Cone penetration test sounding measurementsA CPT survey may include any number of CPT soundings. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValueVSPSurevey VSP sureveyCampaign of Vertical Seismic Profiling measurementsA VSP survey may include any number of vertical seismic profiles. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SurveyTypeValuesonarSurvey sonar surveyCampaign of sonar mapping measurementsA sonar survey may include any number of individual sonar measurements. Geometry is the overall bounding polygon and metadata also includes responsible parties.
SwathTypeValueradarInterferometry radar interferometryRadar mapping technique used to detect centimeter-sized changes in the Earth's crust due to natural phenomena.
SwathTypeValuesonar sonarSound Navigation And Ranging system used for underwater mapping
ActiveWellTypeValuewaterSupply water supplyWell used to supply water for various usages.
ActiveWellTypeValuewithdrawal withdrawalA well used to remove water from aquifers.
ActiveWellTypeValueother OtherAny other usage of a well.
AquiferMediaTypeValueother otherAquifer is other then fractured, porous or karstic.
ConditionOfGroundwaterValuenatural naturalGroundwater quantity or quality is dependent only on natural factors.
ConditionOfGroundwaterValuelightlyModified lightly modifiedGroundwater quantity or quality is dependent mostly on natural factors, but with some human activity.
ConditionOfGroundwaterValuemodified modifiedGroundwater quantity or quality is modified by human activity.
ConditionOfGroundwaterValuestronglyModified strongly modifiedGroundwater quantity or quality is modified by human activity and the values of a number of parameters exceed the drinking water standards.
ConditionOfGroundwaterValueunknown unknownThe natural state of groundwater changes is unknown.
NaturalObjectTypeValueother otherOther places where groundwater table meets the surface.
StatusCodeTypeValueabandoned abandonedPreviously used, but now no longer in use.
WaterSalinityValueacratopegae acratopegaeFrom Ancient Greek akratos ( pure, unmixed) and PEGE ( source, fountain). Water with low mineral content or less than mineral water. Translated from : Du grec ancien akratos ( pur, sans melange ) et pege ( source, fontaine ). Qui a, en parlant d'une eau, une faible teneur en sels mineraux ou une teneur moindre que celle d'une eau minerale. http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/acratop%C3%A8ge
WaterSalinityValuesaltWater salt waterSaline water is a general term for water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (NaCl). The concentration is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm) of salt. The salinity concentration level used by United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three categories. Slightly saline water contains around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm. Moderately saline water contains roughly 3,000 to 10,000 ppm. Highly saline water has around 10,000 to 35,000 ppm of salt. Seawater has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 g/L. Technically, brackish water contains between 0.5 to 30 grams of salt per litre?more often expressed as 0.5 to 30 parts per thousand (ppt). Thus, brackish covers a range of salinity regimes and is not considered a precisely defined condition. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saline_water

Mineralische Bodenschätze

Code listCodeParent_valueEN_labelEN_definitionEN_descriptionDE_labelDE_definitionDE_description
MineralDepositGroupValuefelsicIntermediateIgneousRockRelated felsic-intermediate igneous rock relatedfelsic-intermediate igneous rock related
MineralDepositGroupValuesedimentary sedimentarysedimentary
MineralDepositGroupValuecontactMetamorphism contact metamorphismcontact metamorphism
MineralDepositGroupValuemetasomaticReplacementOrHydrothermalShearOrVein metasomatic replacement or hydrothermal shear or veinmetasomatic replacement or hydrothermal shear or vein
MineralDepositGroupValuebulkRockMaterial bulk rock materialbulk rock material
MineralDepositGroupValueenergy energyenergy
MineralDepositGroupValuealkalineIgneousRocks Alkaline igneous rocksAlkaline igneous rocks
MineralDepositGroupValueOther OtherOther
CommodityCodeValuedirectUseCcommodity direct use commodityCommodity mined and used directly as product, in many cases with some sort of 'beneficiation'.
CommodityCodeValueindustrialMaterialdirectUseCcommodityindustrial materialA compound Earth material, or rock product that is directly used for industrial purposes. Not a specific mineral constituent in the mined material.
CommodityCodeValueaggregateindustrialMaterialaggregateBroad category for coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_aggregate
CommodityCodeValueprimaryAggregateaggregateprimary aggregateSand and gravel and crushed rock extracted from the ground
CommodityCodeValuecrushedRockprimaryAggregatecrushed rockDeposits quarried from a fresh face and broken by mechanical means into aggregate
CommodityCodeValueriprapprimaryAggregateriprapBoulder size rock used to armour shorelines, streambeds, bridge abutments, pilings and other shoreline structures against scour, water or ice erosion.
CommodityCodeValuesandAndGravelprimaryAggregatesand and gravelDurable rock fragments (silicates, flints, etc) with a size range: 0.063 mm - 80mm, derived from the weathering, erosion and transport of rocks by glacial or fluvial processes. Used for aggregate purposes and construction fill.
CommodityCodeValuenaturalSecondaryAggregateaggregatenatural secondary aggregateAggregates produced as a by-product of other mining or quarrying activities such as china clay waste, slate waste and colliery spoil
CommodityCodeValuerecycledAggregateaggregaterecycled aggregateRecycled aggregates are materials produced by the recycling of construction and demolition waste. They can be crushed concrete, bricks or glass, asphalt planings (ie the surface layers of roads removed during roadworks) or spent rail ballast.
CommodityCodeValuedirectShippingOreindustrialMaterialdirect shipping oreProduct of mining activity is bulk ore that ships from mine site directly to refinery to extract commodity.
CommodityCodeValuebauxitedirectShippingOrebauxiteA residual clay deposit, aluminous laterite, derived from the alteration of basalt lava, containing at least 50% Al(OH)3; used as a source of aluminium and as feedstock for ferrous aluminium sulphate water purification material. Used as proppant for hydraulic fracturing; used as abrasive. http://geology.com/minerals/bauxite.shtml
CommodityCodeValueironOredirectShippingOreiron oreIron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). Ores carrying very high quantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than ~60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. most reserves of such ore have now been depleted. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_ore
CommodityCodeValuemagnetiteOreironOremagnetite oreIron ore in which the iron-bearing mineral is greater that 50% magnetite.
CommodityCodeValuehematiteOreironOrehematite oreIron ore in which the iron-bearing mineral is greater that 50% hematite.
CommodityCodeValuemanganeseOredirectShippingOremanganese oreManganese ore occurs mainly as pyrolusite (MnO2) and rhodochrosite (MnCO3) at grades greater than 20% Mn. The ore is beneficiated via crushing, screening and separation before being directly shipped to be used in blast furnaces for steel manufacture. Manganese ore is also used in fertiliser manufacture, for batteries as manganese dioxide and as paint pigments without needing to be reduced to elemental manganese.
CommodityCodeValuedimensionStoneindustrialMaterialdimension stoneDimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and fabricated (i.e., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimension_stone
CommodityCodeValuebasaltdimensionStonebasaltCommercial basalt and traprock includes igneous rocks that are too fine grained to be termed “black granite.” This category includes extrusive igneous rocks, such as andesite, basalt, or dacite, and intrusive igneous rocks, such as amphibolites, diabase, diorites, fine-grained gabbros, peridotites and pyroxenites. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValuegranitedimensionStonegraniteCommercial granites include all feldspathic crystalline rocks of mainly interlocking texture and with individual mineral grains that are visible to the naked eye. This category includes such rock types as anorthosite, gneiss, granite, granodiorite, monzonite, syenite, and all other intermediate igneous and coarse-grained metamorphic rock types. Primary colors of commercial granites are white, gray, pink, and red; green and brown are secondary colors. Although black granites are also included in this category and range in color from dark gray to black, they are not true granites mineralogically but rather mafic rocks, such as diabases, diorites, gabbros, and similar rocks. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValuegreenstonedimensionStonegreenstoneCommercial greenstones are the result of the metamorphosis of basaltic rocks. Greenstone is named because of the predominance of greenish minerals, such as actinolite, chlorite, or epidote. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValuelimestonedimensionStone,industrialRocklimestoneCommercial limestones are rocks of sedimentary origin that primarily are composed of calcium carbonate with or without magnesium. Included in this category are limestone, dolomite, dolomitic limestone, and travertine, which is a calcitic rock that is precipitated from hot springs. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValuemarbledimensionStone,industrialRockmarbleCommercial marble includes metamorphosed limestones and serpentine rocks, all of which are capable of taking a polish. An important member of this classification is serpentine marble, which is also known as verde antique, and comprises green-to-black serpentine, which is a hydrous magnesium silicate mineral that is crisscrossed by veins of lighter minerals, such as calcite or dolomite. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValuemiscellaneousDimensionStonesdimensionStonemiscellaneous dimension stonesThis category includes commercial dimension stone types that do not easily fall into the aforementioned categories, such as soapstone, steatite, or talc, which contain various amounts of the mineral talc. Additional miscellaneous dimension stones include diatomite, mylonite, pumice, schist, tripoli, tuff, porous or scoriaceous volcanic rocks, or any other rocks used as building stones. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValuesandstonedimensionStonesandstoneCommercial sandstone is a lithified sand that chiefly comprises quartz or quartz and feldspar with a fragmental (clastic) texture. Sandstone contains interstitial cementing materials, such as calcite, clay, iron oxides, or silica. Arkose (abundant feldspar grains), graywacke (abundant angular rock fragments), and conglomerate (abundant rounded rock fragments) are included in this category. Other members of this category include bluestone, which is a dense, hard, fine-grained feldspathic sandstone that splits easily along planes into thin, smooth slabs; brownstone, which can be sawn or split, is a feldspathic sandstone of brown to reddish-brown color owing to abundant iron oxide; and flagstone, which is a sandstone, or sandy slate, typically red, tan or gray, that splits into large, thin slabs. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValueslatedimensionStoneslateCommercial slate is a microgranular metamorphic rock formed by the recrystallization of clay sediments, such as claystone, shale, or siltstone. Characterized by excellent parallel cleavage, slates may be easily split into relatively thin slabs. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/stone_dimension/myb1-2007-stond.pdf
CommodityCodeValueindustrialRockindustrialMaterialindustrialRockDifferent kind of rock types, which are uses for industrial purposes.
CommodityCodeValuediatomiteindustrialRockdiatomite'Diatomaceous Earth' or 'kieselguhr', fine grained siliceous sediment composed of remains of diatoms (microscopic plants) derived from lacustrine deposits; used as fillers, absorbents, abrasives, an insulator and filter medium in the food industry
CommodityCodeValuelateriteindustrialRocklateriteDeeply weathered rock material, weakly consolidated, composed of relict quartz, and clays or oxide minerals produced by weathering of source rock. Used historically for building construction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laterite
CommodityCodeValuenephelineSyeniteindustrialRocknephelineSyeniteIn the IUGS classification, the variety of foid syenite in which nepheline is the most abundant feldspathoid. - AGI - Glossary of geology
CommodityCodeValueperliteindustrialRockperlite'Perlite' is a volcanic glass with sufficient water content to cause it to expand, or froth up, when heated, forming a lightweight granular aggregate; used in construction, insulation, packaging and agriculture
CommodityCodeValuephosphateRockindustrialRockphosphateRockAny rock that contains one or more phosphatic minerals of sufficient purity and quantity to permit its commercial use as a source of phosphatic compounds or elemental phosphorus. About 90% of the world's production is sedimentary phosphateRock, or phosphorite; the remainder is igneous rock rich in apatite.
CommodityCodeValuepozzolanindustrialRockpozzolanPozzolan is a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which will react chemically with calcium hydroxide to form compounds possessing cementitious properties (ASTM C618). The broad definition of a pozzolan imparts no bearing on the origin of the material, only on its capability of reacting with calcium hydroxide and water.... The general definition of a pozzolan embraces a large number of materials which vary widely in terms of origin, composition and properties. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pozzolan
CommodityCodeValuepumiceindustrialRockpumiceA volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals. It is typically light colored. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored and denser. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumice
CommodityCodeValueshellGritindustrialRockshell gritShell grit is coarsely ground or broken seashells. It is used, among other things, by birds as a source of calcium for egg shell production, and to aid digestion. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_grit
CommodityCodeValuespongoliteindustrialRockspongoliteSpongolite is a stone made almost entirely from fossilised sponges. It is light and porous. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spongolite
CommodityCodeValueorganicMaterialindustrialMaterialorganicMaterialEarth material composed of organic compounds derived from the remains of dead organisms and their waste products in the environment. Larger molecules of organic matter can be formed from the polymerization of different parts of already broken down matter. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_matter
CommodityCodeValuecarbonaceousMaterialorganicMaterialcarbonaceousMaterialAccummulation rich in, or composed of carbon, normally derived from decomposed plant or animal matter. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonaceous
CommodityCodeValuecoalcarbonaceousMaterialcoalCoal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen, derived from fossilized organic remains. Coal is subdivided in terms of rank. The hardest form or highest rank is anthracite coal, which can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Intermediate rank coal is bituminous and low rank coal includes lignite. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal
CommodityCodeValueanthracitecoalanthraciteAnthracite is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest calorific content of all types of coal (compared to bituminous coal and lignite). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthracite
CommodityCodeValueblackCoalcoalblack coalBituminous coal or black coal is a moderately hard coal containing higher carbon and fewer impurities than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Its coloration can be black or sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. These distinctive sequences, which are classified according to either "dull, bright-banded" or "bright, dull-banded", is how bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_coal
CommodityCodeValuebrownCoalcoalbrown coalLignite, often referred to as sub-bituminous or brown coal, is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock that is formed from naturally compressed peat. It is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its relatively low heat content. It is mined in Bulgaria, Kosovo, Greece, Germany, Poland, Serbia, Russia, Turkey, the United States, Canada, India, Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation. 25.7% of Germany's electricity comes from lignite power plants, while in Greece lignite provides about 50% of its power needs. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_coal
CommodityCodeValuepeatcarbonaceousMaterialpeatAn accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that forms in wetland conditions, where flooding obstructs flows of oxygen from the atmosphere, slowing rates of decomposition. Peat is commonly harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peat
CommodityCodeValuegaseousHydrocarbonsorganicMaterialgaseous hydrocarbonsNatural gas is a hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas
CommodityCodeValuecoalBedMethanegaseousHydrocarbonscoal bed methaneCoal bed methane (CBM) or coal seam gas (CSG) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. Coal bed methane contains very little heavier hydrocarbons such as propane or butane, and no natural-gas condensate. It often contains up to a few percent carbon dioxide. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_bed_methane
CommodityCodeValuegasHydrategaseousHydrocarbonsgas hydrateGas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice. Significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_hydrate
CommodityCodeValuereservoirGasgaseousHydrocarbonsreservoir gasNatural gas derived from underground rock reservoirs typically containing methane with lesser amounts of ethane, propane, butane and pentane. Natural gas is commonly associated with liquid petroleum in the reservoirs but is extracted and managed differently.
CommodityCodeValueliquidHydrocarbonsorganicMaterialliquidHydrocarbonsliquidHydrocarbons consist of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid or semi-solid organic compounds.
CommodityCodeValueasphaltliquidHydrocarbonsasphaltAsphalt or bitumen is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asphalt
CommodityCodeValueoilliquidHydrocarbonsoilOil or petroleum consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights such as alkanes (pentane, hexane, heptane, octane) and other liquid organic compounds, typically recovered from drilling of underground reservoirs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum
CommodityCodeValueoilShaleliquidHydrocarbonsoil shaleFine-grained sedimentary rock, yielding significant quantities of oil upon decomposition by heating to high temperatures
CommodityCodeValuetarSandliquidHydrocarbonstar sandMedium-grained sedimentary rock, yielding significant quantities of tar or oil upon decomposition by heating to high temperatures
CommodityCodeValuesandindustrialMaterial sandIndustrial sand is a term normally applied to high purity silica sand products with closely controlled sizing. It is a more precise product than common concrete and asphalt gravels. Silica is the name given to a group of minerals composed solely of silicon and oxygen, the two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust. - http://www.sand.org/What-is-Industrial-Sand
CommodityCodeValuefoundrySandsandfoundry sandSand that when moistened or oiled tends to pack well and hold its shape. It is used in the process of sand casting. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foundry_sand
CommodityCodeValuefracSandsandfrac sandFrac sand is a high-purity quartz sand with very durable and very round grains. It is a crush-resistant material used in the hydraulic fracturing process to produce petroleum fluids, such as oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids from rock units that lack adequate pore space for these fluids to flow to a well. - http://geology.com/articles/frac-sand/
CommodityCodeValueindustrialMineraldirectUseCcommodityindustrialMineralCommodity is a mineral or mineral group that is directly used for industrial purposes.
CommodityCodeValuealuminosilicateindustrialMineral aluminosilicateAluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations. They are a major component of kaolin and other clay minerals.Andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite are naturally occurring aluminosilicate minerals that have the composition Al2SiO5 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminosilicate
CommodityCodeValueandalusitealuminosilicateandalusiteOrthorhombic Al2SiO5 aluminium neosilicate mineral occurring in aluminous metamorphic rocks. http://webmineral.com/data/Andalusite.shtml
CommodityCodeValuekyanitealuminosilicatekyaniteTriclinic Al2SiO5 aluminium neosilicate mineral used primarily in refractory and ceramic products, including porcelain plumbing fixtures and dishware. It is also used in electronics, electrical insulators and abrasives. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Kyanite.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyanite
CommodityCodeValuepyrophyllitealuminosilicatepyrophylliteA phyllosilicate mineral composed of aluminium silicate hydroxide: Al2Si4O10(OH)2. Pyrophyllite is easily machineable and has excellent thermal stability and is added to clay to reduce thermal expansion when firing and is combined with other compounds, such as in insecticide and for making bricks. It is also used for slate pencils, chalk (French chalk) and small carving. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Pyrophyllite.s html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrophyllite
CommodityCodeValuesillimanitealuminosilicatesillimaniteOrthorhombic Al2SiO5 aluminium neosilicate mineral occurring in aluminous metamorphic rocks used in the manufacture of high alumina refractories or alumina bricks. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Sillimanite.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sillimanite
CommodityCodeValuealuniteindustrialMineral aluniteA trigonal hydrated aluminium potassium, sulfate mineral, KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6 mined for the manufacture of alum. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Alunite.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alunite
CommodityCodeValueapatiteindustrialMineral apatiteApatite is a group of calcium phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2, and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apatite
CommodityCodeValueasbestosindustrialMineral asbestosOne of six naturally occurring silicate minerals that occur in long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin, flexible fibrous crystals. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos
CommodityCodeValueasbestosAmphiboleasbestosasbestos-amphiboleAsbestos formed predominantly of amphibole-group minerals, anthophyllite, crocidolite, riebeckite, amosite, tremolite, actinolite.
CommodityCodeValueanthophylliteasbestosAmphiboleanthophylliteAn orthorhombic magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide amphibole mineral: Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2, used in asbestos cement, composite flooring, roofing material and for insulation.http://www.webmineral.com/data/Anthophyllite.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthophyllite
CommodityCodeValuecrocidoliteasbestosAmphibolecrocidoliteMonoclinic Na2(Fe2+3Fe3+2)Si8O22(OH)2 fibrous form of sodium-rich riebeckite amphibole historically used in filters. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riebeckite
CommodityCodeValueasbestos-serpentineasbestosasbestos-serpentineAsbestos formed predominantly of serpentine-group minerals (chrysotile)
CommodityCodeValuechrysotileasbestos-serpentinechrysotileMonoclinic or orthorhombic Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4 fibrous asbestos mineral that can be spun and woven into fabric, used in asbestos cement roof sheets ceiling panels and for walls and floors. Chrysotile has been a component in joint compound, some plasters, brake linings, fire barriers, pipe insulation, and gaskets for high temperature equipment. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Chrysotile.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysotile
CommodityCodeValuebaryteindustrialMineral baryteAn orthorhombic barium sulfate mineral BaSO4 used as a filler or extender, an addition to industrial products, or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryte
CommodityCodeValueborateindustrialMineral borateEarth material that contains economically significant amounts of minerals containing a borate anion group, one of BO3, B2O5, B3O6, B2O4 , or [B(O,OH)4]. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borate_minerals
CommodityCodeValuecalciteindustrialMineral calciteA trigonal calcium carbonate mineral CaCO3 used in large crystal form for optics and as compound additive for soil remediation, soil stabilization and concrete repair. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Calcite.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcite
CommodityCodeValuechloriteindustrialMineral chloriteThe chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorites can be described by the following four endmembers based on their chemistry via substitution of the following four elements in the silicate lattice; Mg, Fe, Ni, and Mn. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorite_group
CommodityCodeValuechromitemetalchromiteAn isometric iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4 used as a refractory material, because it has a high heat stability. Extracted chromium from chromite is used in chrome plating and alloying for production of corrosion resistant superalloys, nichrome, and stainless steel. Chromium is used as a pigment for glass, glazes, and paint, and as an oxidizing agent for tanning leather. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Chromite.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromite
CommodityCodeValueclayindustrialMineral clayDeposits mostly composed of microcrystalline phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clay
CommodityCodeValuebrickClayclaybrick clayEnd use is determined by the properties of the material therefore it is a valid commodity type
CommodityCodeValuekaolinclaykaolinRocks that are rich in kaolinite, a clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Kaolinite is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_clay
CommodityCodeValuefullersEarthclayFullers earthClay-rich Earth material that has the capability to decolorize oil or other liquids without chemical treatment. Fuller's earth typically consists of palygorskite (attapulgite) or bentonite. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuller%27s_earth
CommodityCodeValuepalygorskitefullersEarthpalygorskitePalygorskite or attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate with formula (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2O) that occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States. It is one of the types of fuller's earth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attapulgite
CommodityCodeValuebentonitefullersEarthbentoniteBentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bentonite
CommodityCodeValuehalloysiteclayhalloysiteHalloysite is a 1:1 aluminosilicate clay mineral with the empirical formula Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Its main constituents are aluminium (20.90%), silicon (21.76%) and hydrogen (1.56%). Halloysite typically forms by hydrothermal alteration of alumino-silicate minerals.[4] It can occur intermixed with dickite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and other clay minerals. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halloysite
CommodityCodeValuesepioliteclaysepioliteSepiolite is used in oil drilling, for cat litter and in a solid form for carving, where it is known as Meerschaum. In construction, sepiolite can be used in lime mortars as water reservoir. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepiolite
CommodityCodeValuewhiteFiringClayclaywhite-firing clayA clay that imparts whiteness to the finished ceramic ware when fired. - http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/642810/whiteware
CommodityCodeValuecorundumindustrialMineral corundumTrigonal form of aluminium oxide Al2O3 with exceptional hardness used as an abrasive in sandpaper to machinery. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Corundum.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corundum
CommodityCodeValuecryoliteindustrialMineral cryoliteMonoclinic sodium hexafluoroaluminate Na3AlF6, used as as a flux to dissolve aluminium from oxide minerals. Natural cryolite is rare so synthetic sodium aluminium fluoride is produced from the fluorite. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Cryolite.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryolite
CommodityCodeValuediamondindustrialMineral diamondCubic carbon allotrope of exceptional hardness used for cutting and grinding. http://www.webmineral.com/data/Diamond.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond
CommodityCodeValueepsomiteindustrialMineral epsomiteEpsomite, or heptahydrite as it is known in chemistry circles, is one of only a few water soluble sulfate minerals. It is actually well known in most households as the artificially created epsom salt. Magnesium sulfate's medicinal uses were discovered from mineral waters at Epsom, England from where epsom salt and epsomite get their names. - http://www.galleries.com/Epsomite
CommodityCodeValueevaporiteindustrialMineral evaporiteWater-soluble mineral sediment or sedimentary rock that results from precipitation of salts concentrated in an an aqueous solution by evaporation or other natural chemical processes.
CommodityCodeValueanhydriteevaporiteanhydriteAnhydrite is a relatively common sedimentary mineral that forms massive rock layers. Anhydrite does not form directly, but is the result of the dewatering of the rock forming mineral Gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O). This loss of water produces a reduction in volume of the rock layer and can cause the formation of caverns as the rock shrinks. - http://www.galleries.com/Anhydrite
CommodityCodeValuecarnalliteevaporitecarnalliteCarnallite is named for Prussian mining engineer, Rudolph von Carnall. It forms in marine evaporite deposits where sea water has been concentrated and exposed to prolonged evaporation.- http://www.galleries.com/Carnallite
CommodityCodeValuegypsumevaporitegypsumGypsum is one of the more common minerals in sedimentary environments. It is a major rock forming mineral that produces massive beds, usually from precipitation out of highly saline waters. Since it forms easily from saline water, gypsum can have many inclusions of other minerals and even trapped bubbles of air and water. - http://www.galleries.com/Gypsum
CommodityCodeValuesaltevaporitesaltCommon salt is a mineral substance composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of ionic salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt is present in vast quantities in the sea where it is the main mineral constituent, with the open ocean having about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt
CommodityCodeValuesylviteevaporitesylviteSylvite, also called sylvine, is a major source of potassium or potash used in fertilizer products. So great is the need for potassium that sylvite deposits are considered very valuable economically. - http://www.galleries.com/Sylvite
CommodityCodeValuefeldsparindustrialMineral feldsparFeldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feldspar
CommodityCodeValuefluoriteindustrialMineral fluoriteFluorite is a mineral with a veritable bouquet of brilliant colors. Fluorite is well known and prized for its glassy luster and rich variety of colors. The range of common colors for fluorite starting from the hallmark color purple, then blue, green, yellow, colorless, brown, pink, black and reddish orange is amazing and is only rivaled in color range by quartz. - http://www.galleries.com/Fluorite
CommodityCodeValuegarnetindustrialMineral garnetGarnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garnet
CommodityCodeValueglauconiteindustrialMineral glauconiteGlauconite, also known as 'green sand' is an iron potassium phyllosilicate (mica group) mineral of characteristic green color with very low weathering resistance and very friable.- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glauconite
CommodityCodeValuegraphiteindustrialMineral graphiteGraphite is a polymorph of the element carbon. diamond is another polymorph. The two share the same chemistry, carbon, but have very different structures and very different properties. - http://www.galleries.com/Graphite
CommodityCodeValuehematiteindustrialMineral hematiteHematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematite
CommodityCodeValuejarositeindustrialMineral jarositeJarosite is a basic hydrous sulfate of potassium and iron with a chemical formula of KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2. This sulfate mineral is formed in ore deposits by the oxidation of iron sulfides.
CommodityCodeValueleucoxeneindustrialMineral leucoxeneLeucoxene is a fine granular alteration product of titanium minerals. It varies in color from yellow to brown.It consists mainly of rutile or anatase. It is observed in some igneous rocks and iron ore deposits as the result of the alteration of ilmenite, perovskite, or titanite - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucoxene
CommodityCodeValuemagnesiteindustrialMineral magnesiteMagnesite does not ordinarily form good crystals, but can make up a substantial portion of some rock types. It forms commonly from the alteration of magnesium-rich rocks during low grade metamorphism while they are in contact with carbonate-rich solutions.- http://www.galleries.com/Magnesite
CommodityCodeValuemagnetiteindustrialMineralmagnetiteMagnetite is an oxide of iron (as is hematite). It is not a component of ordinary rust, although it can form as iron oxidizes in a dry environment. - http://www.galleries.com/Magnetite
CommodityCodeValueilmeniteindustrialMineral ilmeniteIlmenite is an economically important and interesting mineral. It is named for its place of discovery (such places are called type localities) at Ilmen Lake in the Ilmen Mountains, Miask in the southern portion of the Ural Mountains of Russia. Ilmenite forms as a primary mineral in mafic igneous rocks and is concentrated into layers by a process called"magmatic segregation".- http://www.galleries.com/Ilmenite
CommodityCodeValuemicaindustrialMineral micaThe mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having close to perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mica
CommodityCodeValuemolybdeniteindustrialMineral molybdeniteMolybdenite is a very soft metallic mineral. It can be easily confused with graphite, but not with many other minerals. Graphite has a darker black-silver color and a black-gray to brown-gray streak, whereas molybdenite has a bluish-silver color and streak. - http://www.galleries.com/Molybdenite
CommodityCodeValuemonaziteindustrialMineral monaziteMonazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare earth metals. It occurs usually in small isolated crystals. There are at least four different kinds of monazite, depending on relative elemental composition of the mineral - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monazite
CommodityCodeValuepyriteindustrialMineral pyriteThe mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence the well-known nickname of fool's gold. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrite
CommodityCodeValuequartzindustrialMineral quartzQuartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartz
CommodityCodeValuerutileindustrialMineral rutileRutile is an interesting, varied and important mineral. Rutile is a major ore of titanium, a metal used for high tech alloys because of its light weight, high strength and resistance to corrosion. - http://www.galleries.com/Rutile
CommodityCodeValuesaponiteindustrialMineral saponiteA smectite group mineral, occurs insoapstone used in porcelain in Cornwall - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saponite
CommodityCodeValuesericiteindustrialMineral sericiteSericite is a fine grained mica, similar to muscovite, illite, or paragonite. Sericite is a common alteration mineral of orthoclase or plagioclase feldspars in areas that have been subjected to hydrothermal alteration typically associated with hydrothermal ore deposits.- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sericite
CommodityCodeValueserpentineindustrialMineral serpentineThe serpentine group are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks. They are used as a source of magnesium and asbestos, and as a decorative stone.[1] The name is thought to come from the greenish color being that of a serpent.- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpentine_group
CommodityCodeValuesilicaindustrialMineral silicaSilicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is a dioxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silica
CommodityCodeValuechertsilicachertChert is a fine-grained silica-rich microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. It varies greatly in color (from white to black), but most often manifests as gray, brown, grayish brown and light green to rusty red; its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock, and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chert
CommodityCodeValuespinelindustrialMineral spinelSpinel /ˈspɪnɛl/ is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. It has the formula MgAl2O4 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinel
CommodityCodeValuestauroliteindustrialMineral stauroliteStaurolite is a red brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, has a Mohs hardness of 7 to 7.5 and the chemical formula: Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O,OH)2. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staurolite
CommodityCodeValuestrontianiteindustrialMineral strontianiteStrontium carbonate, usually containing some calcium. It is a member of the aragonite group. Used in the refining of sugar and the production of fireworks. - http://www.minerals.net/mineral/strontianite.aspx,
CommodityCodeValuetalcindustrialMineral talcTalc is an important industrialMineral. Its resistance to heat, electricity and acids make it an ideal surface for lab counter tops and electrical switchboards. It is also an important filler material for paints, rubber and insecticides. Even with all these uses, most people only know talc as the primary ingredient in talcum powder.- http://www.galleries.com/Talc
CommodityCodeValuethenarditeindustrialMineral thenarditeThenardite is one of several non-marine evaporite Sulfate Class minerals. It is easily dissolvable in water and specimens should be stored with desiccant. Sulfates in general tend to be more soluble than most of the other mineral classes and simple sodium salts, such as thernardite, are always soluble. - http://www.galleries.com/Thenardite
CommodityCodeValuetremoliteActinoliteindustrialMineral tremolite-actinoliteTremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2(Mg5.0-4.5Fe2+0.0-0.5)Si8O22(OH)2. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white, but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. Nephrite, one of the two minerals of the gemstone jade, is a green variety of tremolite - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tremolite
CommodityCodeValuevermiculiteindustrialMineral vermiculiteVermiculite is an important member of the Montmorillonite/Smectite Group, members of which also belong to the larger general group known as the Clays. Vermiculite is also sometimes placed in the Mica Group, although recent analysis has excluded it from this group. - http://www.galleries.com/Vermiculite
CommodityCodeValuewollastoniteindustrialMineral wollastoniteWollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium. It is usually white. It forms when impure limestone or dolostone is subjected to high temperature and pressure sometimes in the presence of silica-bearing fluids as in skarns or contact metamorphic rocks. Associated minerals include garnets, vesuvianite, diopside, tremolite, epidote, plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene and calcite. It is named after the English chemist and mineralogist William Hyde Wollaston (1766–1828). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wollastonite
CommodityCodeValuezeoliteindustrialMineral zeoliteZeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.[1] The term zeolite was originally coined in 1756 by Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who observed that upon rapidly heating the material stilbite, it produced large amounts of steam from water that had been adsorbed by the material. Based on this, he called the material zeolite, from the Greek ζέω (zéō), meaning "to boil" and λίθος (líthos), meaning "stone. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeolite
CommodityCodeValuezirconindustrialMineral zirconZircon (/ˈzɜrkən/; including hyacinth or yellow zircon) is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4. A common empirical formula showing some of the range of substitution in zircon is (Zr1–y, REEy)(SiO4)1–x(OH)4x–y - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zircon
CommodityCodeValuegemstonedirectUseCcommoditygemstoneA gemstone or gem (also called a precious or semi-precious stone, a fine gem, or jewel) is a piece of mineral, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemstone
CommodityCodeValueambergemstoneamberAmber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amber
CommodityCodeValueapatiteGemstonegemstoneapatite-gemstoneApatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2, and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apatite
CommodityCodeValueberylgemstoneberylBeryl is often unknown to the general public, even the gemstone-buying public. However, it is one of the most important gem minerals. Beryl is colorless in pure form; it is the many different impurities that give beryl its varied coloration. - http://www.galleries.com/Beryl
CommodityCodeValueaquamarineberylaquamarineA blue- or turquoise-colored variety of beryl.
CommodityCodeValueemeraldberylemeraldA variety of the mineral beryl characterized by green color.
CommodityCodeValueheliodorberylheliodorHeliodor is the yellow variety of beryl, the "mother of gemstones". Heliodor does not include golden colors which are given the apt name of golden beryl. - http://www.galleries.com/Heliodor
CommodityCodeValuemorganiteberylmorganiteMorganite is the pink variety of beryl, the "mother of gemstones". While there are other pink gemstones (rose quartz and tourmaline come to mind), morganite is the most durable and rarest. - http://www.galleries.com/Morganite
CommodityCodeValuecassiteriteGemstonegemstonecassiterite-gemstoneCassiterite is a mineral that has ornately faceted specimens with high luster. It is generally opaque, but its luster and multiple crystal faces cause a nice sparkle. - http://www.galleries.com/Cassiterite
CommodityCodeValuechrysoberylgemstonechrysoberylChrysoberyl is a poorly known mineral in the gem world even though the gem varieties are popular.There are three main gem varieties: - http://www.galleries.com/Chrysoberyl
CommodityCodeValuecordieritegemstonecordieriteCordierite is not a well known or popular mineral for mineral collectors. However, its gemstone variety is well known and is rather popular among gemstone collectors and fanciers. - http://www.galleries.com/Cordierite
CommodityCodeValuecorundumGemstonegemstonecorundum-gemstoneCorundum is the third hardest natural mineral known to science. The hardest mineral, diamond is still four times harder than corundum - http://www.galleries.com/Corundum
CommodityCodeValuerubycorundumGemstonerubyA ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rub\\
CommodityCodeValuesapphirecorundumGemstonesapphireSapphire is a blue gemstone variety of the mineral corundum. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapphire
CommodityCodeValuediamondGemstonegemstonediamond-gemstoneDiamond is the ultimate gemstone, having few weaknesses and many strengths. It is well known that Diamond is the hardest substance found in nature, but few people realize that Diamond is four times harder than the next hardest natural mineral, corundum (sapphire and ruby). But even as hard as it is, it is not impervious. Diamond has four directions of cleavage, meaning that if it receives a sharp blow in one of these directions it can cleave, or split. - http://www.galleries.com/Diamond
CommodityCodeValuediopsideEnstatitegemstonediopside-enstatiteDiopside is an important rock forming mineral in several metamorphic and basic to ultra basic igneous rocks, also found in meteorites. Diopside is a part of an important solid solution series of the pyroxene group. Occasionally used as a gemstone and as a mineral specimen. - http://www.galleries.com/Diopside
CommodityCodeValuedioptasegemstonedioptaseDioptase is a very beautiful mineral and it is one of the few minerals that can challenge the peerlessness of emerald's deep green. Unfortunately it is rather soft (for a gemstone) and has good cleavage and therefore is not usually cut as a gemstone. - http://www.galleries.com/Dioptase
CommodityCodeValuedumortieritegemstonedumortieriteDumortierite is a boro-silicate mineral that is used as a popular ornamental stone. It has a deep violet to blue color that is very attractive and unusual. Although it is not used as a gemstone due to a lack of clarity, it does have good hardness and a bright color. - http://www.galleries.com/Dumortierite
CommodityCodeValueeuclasegemstoneeuclaseEuclase is not a well known gemstone, but is more well known by mineral collectors. It forms well formed crystals that occasionally have enough clarity to be cut as gems. - http://www.galleries.com/Euclase
CommodityCodeValuefeldsparGemstonegemstonefeldspar-gemstoneThe feldspars are a group of minerals that have similar characteristics due to a similar structure.- http://www.galleries.com/Feldspar_Group
CommodityCodeValueamazonitefeldsparGemstoneamazoniteA green variety of microcline feldspar. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazonite
CommodityCodeValuemoonstonefeldsparGemstonemoonstoneMoonstone is a sodium potassium aluminium silicate, with the chemical formula (Na,K)AlSi3O8. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moonstone_(gemstone)
CommodityCodeValuespectrolitefeldsparGemstonespectroliteA variety of labradorite feldspar that exhibits a richer range of colours than the blue-grey-green of labradorite, and high has labradoresence. Sometimes incorrectly used to describe labradorite whenever a richer display of colours is present, regardless of locality. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectrolite
CommodityCodeValuegarneeu-technicalemstonegemstonegarnet-gemstoneGarnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garnet
CommodityCodeValuetsavoritegarneeu-technicalemstonetsavoriteTsavorite or tsavolite is a variety of the garnet group species grossular, a calcium-aluminium garnet with the formula Ca3Al2Si3O12 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsavorite
CommodityCodeValuehematiteGemstonegemstonehematite-gemstoneHematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematite
CommodityCodeValuejadegemstonejadeJade is a name that was applied to ornamental stones that were being brought to Europe from China and Central America.- http://www.galleries.com/Jade
CommodityCodeValuekornerupinegemstonekornerupineKornerupine is a rare gemstone and an equally rare mineral specimen. Its claim to fame is its wonderful emerald green color.- http://www.galleries.com/Kornerupine
CommodityCodeValuekyaniteGemstonegemstonekyanite-gemstoneKyanite is an attractive mineral that has a near sapphire-like blue color in some especially nice specimens - http://www.galleries.com/Kyanite
CommodityCodeValuelazulitegemstonelazuliteLazulite is named from an Arabic word for heaven in allusion to its sky blue color. Crystals are more common than massive forms, but localities with gem grade crystals are scattered and scarce. - http://www.galleries.com/Lazulite
CommodityCodeValuemalachitegemstonemalachiteMalachite is a famous and very popular semi-precious stone. It is named for the Greek word for "mallow", a green herb. Its banded light and dark green designs are one-of-a-kind, and give it a unique ornamental quality unlike that of any other stone. - http://www.galleries.com/Malachite
CommodityCodeValueobsidiangemstoneobsidianObsidian is the result of volcanic lava coming in contact with water. Often the lava pours into a lake or ocean and is cooled quickly. This process produces a glassy texture in the resulting rock. Iron and magnesium give the obsidian a dark green to black color. Obsidian has been used by ancient people as a cutting tool, for weapons, and for ceremonial purposes and is sometimes found by archaeologists in excavations. - http://www.galleries.com/Obsidian
CommodityCodeValueolivineindustrialMineralolivinePeridot is gem-quality olivine. Olivine is a silicate mineral with formula of (Mg, Fe)2SiO4. As peridot is the magnesium-rich variety (forsterite) the formula approaches Mg2SiO4. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peridot
CommodityCodeValueolivineGemstonegemstoneolivine-gemstonePeridot is gem-quality olivine. Olivine is a silicate mineral with formula of (Mg, Fe)2SiO4. As peridot is the magnesium-rich variety (forsterite) the formula approaches Mg2SiO4. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peridot
CommodityCodeValuephenakitegemstonephenakiteA fairly rare nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium orthosilicate, Be2SiO4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenakite
CommodityCodeValueprehnitegemstoneprehnitePrehnite was named after its discoverer; Colonel Hendrik von Prehn and is an attractive collection mineral that is occassionally used for ornamental stone purposes. - http://www.galleries.com/Prehnite
CommodityCodeValuequartzGemstonegemstonequartz-gemstoneQuartz is the most common mineral on the face of the Earth. Some macrocrystalline (large crystal) varieties are well known and popular as ornamental stone and as gemstones. - http://www.galleries.com/Quartz
CommodityCodeValueamethystquartzGemstoneamethystAmethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amethyst
CommodityCodeValuecitrinequartzGemstonecitrineCitrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrine#Citrine
CommodityCodeValueroseQuartzquartzGemstonerose quartzRose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_quartz#Rose_quartz
CommodityCodeValuesmokeyQuartzquartzGemstonesmokey quartzSmoky quartz is a brown to black variety of quartz - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoky_quartz
CommodityCodeValuerhodonitegemstonerhodoniteRhodonite is an attractive mineral that is often carved and used in jewelry. It is named after the Greek word for rose, rhodon. - http://www.galleries.com/Rhodonite
CommodityCodeValuesapphirinegemstonesapphirineSapphire is the non-red variety of corundum, the second hardest natural mineral known to mankind. The red variety of corundum is Ruby - all other colors are called sapphire, even pink. - http://www.galleries.com/Sapphire
CommodityCodeValuescapolitegemstonescapoliteA group of rock-forming silicate minerals composed of aluminium, calcium, and sodium silicate with chlorine, carbonate and sulfate. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scapolite
CommodityCodeValuesilicaGemstonegemstonesilica-gemstonehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silica
CommodityCodeValuechalcedonysilicaGemstonechalcedonyChalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of the minerals quartz and moganite.- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalcedony
CommodityCodeValueagatechalcedonyagateA variety of chalcedony having variegated colors arranged in stripes, blended in clouds, or showing mosslike forms. Sardonyx is a red-white or rarely red-white-black variant.. - http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/agate; http://www.quartzpage.de/agate.html
CommodityCodeValuemossAgateagatemossAgatemossAgate (also called mocha stone) is a semi-precious gemstone formed from silicon dioxide. It is a form of chalcedony which includes minerals of a green colour embedded in the stone, forming filaments and other patterns suggestive of moss. It also sometimes resembles blue-cheese. The field is a clear or milky-white quartz, and the included minerals are mainly oxides of manganese or iron. It is not a true form of agate, as it lacks agate's defining feature of concentric banding. mossAgate is of the white variety with green inclusions that resemble moss. It occurs - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moss_agate
CommodityCodeValueonyxagateonyxOnyx is a black-and-white banded agate - http://www.quartzpage.de/agate.html#onyx
CommodityCodeValuecarnelianchalcedonycarnelianA variety of chalcedony colored by iron oxide, which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. When Carnelian grades into brown it is known as Sard. Some very dark brown Carnelian can be classified as Jasper. The distinction between these is very fine and relies more on visual appearance than scientific analysis. As a result, it is very possible that one man's Carnelian may be another man's Sard, Agate or Jasper. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnelian; http://www.controverscial.com/Carnelian.htm
CommodityCodeValuechrysoprasechalcedonychrysopraseA variety of chalcedony that contains small quantities of nickel. Its color is normally apple-green, but varies to deep green. The darker varieties of chrysoprase are also referred to as prase. (However, the term prase is also used to describe chlorite-included quartz, and to a certain extent is a color-descriptor, rather than a rigorously defined mineral variety.) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysoprase
CommodityCodeValueopalsilicaGemstoneopalOpal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%. Because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opal
CommodityCodeValuesinhalitegemstonesinhaliteSinhalite is rare mineral and known only from the gem gravels in Sri Lanka. - http://www.galleries.com/Sinhalite
CommodityCodeValuesodalitegemstonesodaliteSodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque, crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne, nosean, lazurite and tugtupite. - see - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodalite
CommodityCodeValuespinelGemstonegemstonespinel-gemstoneThe Spinel Group contains over twenty members, but only a few are considered common. They are a group of oxides that have very similar structures. Named after their sole gemstone representative, spinel, this is an important group of minerals. - http://www.galleries.com/Spinel_Group
CommodityCodeValuespodumenegemstonespodumeneSpodumene is a rock forming mineral in granites and pegmatites that bear other lithium minerals. Spodumene is a relatively new mineral to science, being discovered in the last three centuries and gem varieties have only been discovered in the last 120 years. - http://www.galleries.com/Spodumene
CommodityCodeValuetanzanitegemstonetanzaniteTanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite belonging to the epidote group.- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanzanite
CommodityCodeValuetopazgemstonetopazTopaz is a common gemstone that has been used for centuries in jewelry. Topaz is the hardest silicate mineral and one of the hardest minerals in nature. - http://www.galleries.com/Topaz
CommodityCodeValuetourmalinegemstonetourmalineTourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourmaline
CommodityCodeValueturquoisegemstoneturquoiseTurquoise is a valuable mineral and is possibly the most valuable, non-transparent, non-metal mineral in the jewelry trade. - http://www.galleries.com/Turquoise
CommodityCodeValuevariscitegemstonevarisciteVariscite is a relatively rare phosphate mineral that is sometimes confused with turquoise. It is usually greener, however, than turquoise. Variscite is sometimes used as a semi-precious stone and can make distinctive color patterns that are very attractive. - http://www.galleries.com/Variscite
CommodityCodeValuevesuvianitegemstonevesuvianiteVesuvianite, also known as Idocrase, is a fascinating mineral found originally on the volcano, Mt Vesuvius, hence one of the names. The other name, idocrase, is from the greek and means mixed form, an allusion to its crystals showing a mixture of other mineral forms. - http://www.galleries.com/Vesuvianite
CommodityCodeValuexenotimeGemstonegemstonexenotime-gemstoneXenotime is a rare earth phosphate mineral, whose major component is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4). Occasionally, gemstones are also cut from the finer xenotime crystals. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenotime
CommodityCodeValuezirconGemstonegemstonezircon-gemstoneZircon resembles diamond in luster and fire and colorless zircons have been mistaken for diamonds by experienced jewelers. Zircon can make a very attractive and affordable gemstone. It is found in browns and greens but can be heat treated to beautiful blue and golden colors. - http://www.galleries.com/Zircon
CommodityCodeValueproducedCommodity produced commodityCommodity is obtained by extracting from material mined from the Earth.
CommodityCodeValuemetalproducedCommoditymetalCommodity is a metal that is extracted from an ore material mined from the Earth
CommodityCodeValuebaseMetalmetalbase metalIn chemistry, the term base metal is used informally to refer to a metal that oxidizes or corrodes relatively easily and reacts variably with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form hydrogen. Examples include iron, nickel, lead and zinc. Copper is also considered a base metal because it oxidizes relatively easily, although it does not react with HCl. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_metal
CommodityCodeValuecopperbaseMetalcopperCopper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper
CommodityCodeValuecobaltbaseMetalcobaltCobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt in the Earth's crust is found only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt
CommodityCodeValueleadbaseMetalleadLead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft and malleable metal, which is regarded as a heavy metal and an other metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead
CommodityCodeValuenickelbaseMetalnickelNickel is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel
CommodityCodeValuezincbaseMetalzincZinc is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc
CommodityCodeValuepreciousMetalmetalprecious metalA precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals tend to be less reactive than most elements. They are usually ductile and have a high lustre. Historically, precious metals were important as currency but are now regarded mainly as investment and industrial commodities. Gold, silver, platinum, and palladium each have an ISO 4217 currency code. The best-known precious metals are the coinage metals, gold and silver. While both have industrial uses, they are better known for their uses in art, jewellery and coinage. Other precious metals include the platinum group metals: ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, of which platinum is the most widely traded. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precious_metal
CommodityCodeValuegoldpreciousMetalgoldGold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal with a bright yellow color and luster, the properties of which remain without tarnishing when exposed to air or water. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold
CommodityCodeValuesilverpreciousMetalsilverSilver is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver
CommodityCodeValueplatinumGroupMetalpreciousMetalplatinum group metalThe platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) is a term used sometimes to collectively refer to six metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platinum_group_metal
CommodityCodeValueiridiumplatinumGroupMetaliridiumIridium is the chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum family - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iridium
CommodityCodeValueosmiumplatinumGroupMetalosmiumOsmium is a chemical element with the symbol Os and atomic number 76. It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. - Osmium (from Greek osme (ὀσμή) meaning "smell") is a chemical element with the symbol Os and atomic number 76. It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores.
CommodityCodeValueplatinumplatinumGroupMetalplatinumPlatinum is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pt and an atomic number of 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, gray-white transition metal. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platinum
CommodityCodeValuerhodiumplatinumGroupMetalrhodiumRhodium is a chemical element that is a rare, silvery-white, hard, and chemically inert transition metal and a member of the platinum group. It has the chemical symbol Rh and atomic number 45. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodium
CommodityCodeValuerutheniumplatinumGroupMetalrutheniumRuthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenium
CommodityCodeValuepalladiumplatinumGroupMetalpalladiumPalladium is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pd and an atomic number of 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palladium
CommodityCodeValuerareEarthElementmetalrare earth elementAs defined by IUPAC, a rare earth element (REE) or rare earth metal is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_earth_element
CommodityCodeValueHREErareEarthElementHREESee - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_earth_element
CommodityCodeValuedysprosiumHREEdysprosiumDysprosium is a chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysprosium
CommodityCodeValueerbiumHREEerbiumErbium is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements on Earth. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erbium
CommodityCodeValueholmiumHREEholmiumHolmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. Part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare earth element. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holmium
CommodityCodeValuelutetiumHREElutetiumLutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry, but not in moist air. It is the last element in the lanthanide series (or, on occasion, considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals), and traditionally counted among the rare earths. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lutetium
CommodityCodeValueterbiumHREEterbiumTerbium is a chemical element with the symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and very hard. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite. - Terbium is a chemical element with the symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and very hard. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite.
CommodityCodeValuethuliumHREEthuliumThulium is a chemical element that has the symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It is the thirteenth and antepenultimate element in the lanthanide series - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thulium
CommodityCodeValueyttriumHREEyttriumYttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yttrium
CommodityCodeValueytterbiumHREEytterbiumYtterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, or last element in the f-block, which is the basis of the relative stability of the +2 oxidation state. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ytterbium
CommodityCodeValueLREErareEarthElementLREESee - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_earth_element
CommodityCodeValueceriumLREEceriumCerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerium
CommodityCodeValueeuropiumLREEeuropiumEuropium is a chemical element with the symbol Eu and atomic number 63. It is named after the continent Europe. It is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europium
CommodityCodeValuegadoliniumLREEgadoliniumGadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadolinium
CommodityCodeValuelanthanumLREElanthanumLanthanum is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element and is the first element of the lanthanide series (or, on occasion, considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanthanum
CommodityCodeValueneodymiumLREEneodymiumNeodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neodymium
CommodityCodeValuepraseodymiumLREEpraseodymiumPraseodymium is a chemical element that has the symbol Pr and atomic number 59. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal in the lanthanide group. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Praseodymium
CommodityCodeValuepromethiumLREEpromethiumPromethium, originally prometheum, is a chemical element with the symbol Pm and atomic number 61. All of its isotopes are radioactive; it is one of only two such elements that are followed in the periodic table by elements with stable forms, a distinction shared with technetium. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promethium
CommodityCodeValuesamariumLREEsamariumSamarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a moderately hard silvery metal that readily oxidizes in air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samarium
CommodityCodeValuescandiumLREEscandiumScandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandium
CommodityCodeValueferrousMetalmetalferrous metalThose metals [that are] typically mined for their alloying properties with iron in the manufacture of steel. - AGi fifth ediition
CommodityCodeValuechromiumferrousMetalchromiumChromium is a chemical element which has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromium
CommodityCodeValueironferrousMetalironIron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron
CommodityCodeValuemanganeseferrousMetalmanganeseManganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature, it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese
CommodityCodeValuetitaniumferrousMetaltitaniumTitanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanium
CommodityCodeValuevanadiumferrousMetalvanadiumVanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery gray, ductile and malleable transition metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanadium
CommodityCodeValuealuminiummetalaluminiumAluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery white, soft, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium
CommodityCodeValueberylliummetalberylliumBeryllium is the chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. Because any beryllium synthesized in stars is short-lived, it is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berylliumin minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) and chrysoberyl. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beryllium
CommodityCodeValuebariummetalbariumBarium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide was known in pre-modern history as baryta; this substance does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barium
CommodityCodeValuebismuthmetalbismuthBismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent other metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bismuth
CommodityCodeValuecadmiummetalcadmiumCadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium
CommodityCodeValuecesiummetalcesiumCaesium or cesium[note 1] is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (82 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. - Caesium or cesium[note 1] is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (82 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesium
CommodityCodeValuegalliummetalgalliumGallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallium
CommodityCodeValuehafniummetalhafniumHafnium is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. A lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafnium
CommodityCodeValueindiummetalindiumIndium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49. This rare, very soft, malleable and easily fusible other heavy metal is chemically similar to gallium and thallium, and shows intermediate properties between these two. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indium
CommodityCodeValuelithiummetallithiumLithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium
CommodityCodeValuemagnesiummetalmagnesiumMagnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Its common oxidation number is +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth-most-abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium
CommodityCodeValuemercurymetalmercuryMercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum. A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury_(element)
CommodityCodeValuemolybdenummetalmolybdenumMolybdenum is a Group 6 chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin Molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molybdenum
CommodityCodeValueniobiummetalniobiumNiobium, formerly columbium, is a chemical element with the symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niobium
CommodityCodeValuepotassiummetalpotassiumPotassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction and burning with a lilac flame. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium
CommodityCodeValueradiummetalradiumRadium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. Radium is an almost pure-white alkaline earth metal, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, becoming black in color. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium
CommodityCodeValuerheniummetalrheniumRhenium is a chemical element with the symbol Re and atomic number 75. It is a silvery-white, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhenium
CommodityCodeValuerubidiummetalrubidiumRubidium is a chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other alkali metals, such as very rapid oxidation in air. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubidium
CommodityCodeValuestrontiummetalstrontiumStrontium (/ˈstrɒntiəm/ STRON-tee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when it is exposed to air. Strontium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two neighbors calcium and barium. It occurs naturally in the minerals celestine, putnisite and strontianite. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strontium
CommodityCodeValuetantalummetaltantalumTantalum is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Previously known as tantalium, its name comes from Tantalus, a character from Greek mythology. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys. The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantalum
CommodityCodeValuethalliummetalthalliumThallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81. This soft gray other metal is not found free in nature. When isolated, it resembles tin, but discolors when exposed to air. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thallium
CommodityCodeValuethoriummetalthoriumThorium is a naturally occurring radioactive chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium
CommodityCodeValuetinmetaltinTin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (for Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group-14 elements, germanium and lead. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin
CommodityCodeValuetungstenmetaltungstenTungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with the chemical symbol W and atomic number 74. The word tungsten comes from the Swedish language tung sten directly translatable to heavy stone, - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tungsten
CommodityCodeValueuraniummetaluraniumUranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with symbol U and atomic number 92. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all its isotopes are unstable (with half-lives of the 6 naturally known isotopes, U-233 - U-238, varying between 69 years and 4½ billion years). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium
CommodityCodeValuezirconiummetalzirconiumZirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr, atomic number 40 and atomic mass of 91.224. The name of zirconium is taken from the mineral zircon, the most important source of zirconium. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zirconium
CommodityCodeValuemetalloidproducedCommoditymetalloidA metalloid is a chemical element that has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals. There is no standard definition of a metalloid, nor is there complete agreement as to which elements are appropriately classified as such. Despite this lack of specificity, the term remains in use in chemistry literature. The six commonly recognised metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metalloid
CommodityCodeValueantimonymetalloidantimonyAntimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimony
CommodityCodeValuearsenicmetalloidarsenicArsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It can exist in various allotropes, although only the gray.form has important use in industry. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsenic
CommodityCodeValueboronmetalloidboronBoron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Because boron is produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust. Boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals. These are mined industrially as evaporites, such as borax and kernite. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boron
CommodityCodeValuegermaniummetalloidgermaniumGermanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Unlike silicon, it is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in the free (native) state. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanium
CommodityCodeValuesiliconmetalloidsiliconSilicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon
CommodityCodeValuetelluriummetalloidtelluriumTellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52. A brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid which looks similar to tin, tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It is occasionally found in native form, as elemental crystals. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tellurium
CommodityCodeValuenonMetalproducedCommoditynon metalIn chemistry, a nonmetal or non-metal is a chemical element which mostly lacks metallic attributes. Physically, nonmetals tend to be highly volatile (easily vaporised), have low elasticity, and are good insulators of heat and electricity; chemically, they tend to have high ionisation energy and electronegativity values, and gain or share electrons when they react with other elements or compounds. Seventeen elements are generally classified as nonmetals; most are gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon, krypton, xenon and radon); one is a liquid (bromine); and a few are solids (carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, and iodine). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-metal
CommodityCodeValuebrominenonMetalbromineBromine (from Greek: βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "strong-smelling" or "stench")[3] is a chemical element with the symbol Br, and atomic number of 35. It is in the halogen group. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromine
CommodityCodeValuefluorinenonMetalfluorineFluorine is an extremely reactive and poisonous chemical element with atomic number 9. The lightest halogen and most electronegative element, it exists as a pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. Almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorine
CommodityCodeValueiodinenonMetaliodineIodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of elemental iodine vapor. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine
CommodityCodeValuephosphorousnonMetalphosphorousPhosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent pnictogen, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphateRocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorus
CommodityCodeValueseleniumnonMetalseleniumSelenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between those of its periodic table column-adjacent chalcogen elements sulfur and tellurium. It rarely occurs in its elemental state in nature, or as pure ore compounds. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selenium
CommodityCodeValuesulphurnonMetalsulphurSulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid when at room temperature. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulphur
CommodityCodeValuechemicalCompoundProductproducedCommoditychemical compound productCommodity is a chemical compound that is extracted/processed from an ore material mined from the Earth
CommodityCodeValuenitratechemicalCompoundProductnitrateNitrates are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their high solubility and biodegradability. The main nitrates are ammonium, sodium, potassium, and calcium salts. Several million kilograms are produced annually for this purpose. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrate
CommodityCodeValuesodaAshchemicalCompoundProductsoda ashThe manufacture of glass is one of the most important uses of sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate acts as a flux for silica, lowering the melting point of the mixture to something achievable without special materials. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soda_ash
CommodityCodeValuelimechemicalCompoundProductlimeStrictly speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide, but the category is commonly applied to calcium-containing inorganicMaterial in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lime_(material)
CommodityCodeValuepotashchemicalCompoundProductpotashPotash is any of various salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, the most common being potassium chloride (KCl). Mostly used in fertilizers. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potash
CommodityCodeValuechemicalOxideProductchemicalCompoundProductchemical oxide productCommodity is a chemical compound product oxide that is extracted/processed from an ore material mined from the Earth
CommodityCodeValuealuminachemicalOxideProductaluminaAlumina is a fairly chemically inert and white chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. Used as filler in plastic and cosmetics, as a catalyst. Corundum used as an abrasive is considered and industrialMineral. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alumina
CommodityCodeValuechromechemicalOxideProductchromeA green-colored oxide of chromium, used as a pigment, originally called viridian. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromium(III)_oxide
CommodityCodeValueironOxidechemicalOxideProductiron oxideCommodity of interest is any of the sixteen known iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, extracted from the mined material, exclusive of hematite or magnetite produced as an industrialMineral. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_oxide
CommodityCodeValueochreironOxideochreOchre is a natural earth pigment containing hydrated iron oxide, which ranges in color from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also the name of the colors produced by this pigment, especially a light brownish-yellow. A variant of ochre containing a large amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as "red ochre". - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ochre
CommodityCodeValuelithiumOxidechemicalOxideProductlithium oxideLithium oxide is used as a flux in ceramic glazes; and creates blues with copper and pinks with cobalt. Lithium oxide reacts with water and steam, forming lithium hydroxide and should be isolated from them. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_oxide
CommodityCodeValuemagnesiachemicalOxideProductmagnesiaMagnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_oxide
CommodityCodeValueniobiumPentoxidechemicalOxideProductniobiumPentoxideniobiumPentoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Nb2O5. It is a colourless insoluble solid that is fairly unreactive. It is the main precursor to all materials made of niobium, the dominant application being alloys, but other specialized applications include capacitors, lithium niobate, and optical glasses. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niobium_pentoxide
CommodityCodeValuephosphorousPentoxidechemicalOxideProductphosphorousPentoxidePhosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5). This white crystalline solid is the anhydride of phosphoric acid. It is a powerful desiccant and dehydrating agent. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorous_pentoxide
CommodityCodeValuerareEarthOxidechemicalOxideProductrare earth oxideAs defined by IUPAC, a rare earth element (REE) or rare earth metal is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium.[2] Scandium and yttrium are considered rare earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_earth_element
CommodityCodeValuetantalumPentoxidechemicalOxideProducttantalumPentoxideAn oxide of tantalum also known as tantalum(V) oxide, a white, inert solid with a high refractive index and low absorption (i.e. colourless), useful for coatings, and used in the production of capacitors, due to its high dielectric constant. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantalum_pentoxide
CommodityCodeValueuraniumOxidechemicalOxideProducturanium oxideUranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (UO2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite. It is used in nuclear fuel rods in nuclear reactors. A mixture of uranium and plutonium dioxides is used as MOX fuel. Prior to 1960 it was used as yellow and black color in ceramic glazes and glass. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium_dioxide
CommodityCodeValuevanadiumPentoxidechemicalOxideProductvanadium pentoxideA brown/yellow solid, although when freshly precipitated from aqueous solution, its colour is deep orange. Also known as vanadium(V) oxide or vanadia. Because of its high oxidation state, is both an amphoteric oxide and an oxidizing agent, used as a precursor to alloys of vanadium and as an industrial catalyst. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanadium(V)_oxide
CommodityCodeValueyttriumOxidechemicalOxideProductyttrium oxideYttrium oxide, also known as yttria is an air-stable, white solid substance. Used to make Eu:YVO4 and Eu:Y2O3 phosphors that give the red color in color TV picture tubes, to make yttrium iron garnets used in microwave filters, and to make the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yttrium_oxide
CommodityCodeValuezirconiachemicalOxideProductzirconiaA white crystalline oxide of zirconium. Used in the production of ceramics, as a protective coating on particles of titanium dioxide pigments, as a refractory material, in insulation, abrasives and enamels, in oxygen sensors and fuel cell membranes, and as the solid electrolyte in electrochromic devices. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zirconia
EndusePotentialValuenonMetallicMineralsWithMoreDedicatedEndUses Non-metallic minerals (with more dedicated end uses)Non-metallic minerals (with more dedicated end uses)
EndusePotentialValuechemicalnonMetallicMineralsChemicalBorates; Barite; Fluorite; Magnesium (magnesite); Sodium sulphate; Sodium carbonate (trona); Pyrite; Sulphur; Rock salt; Strontium; Zeolites
EndusePotentialValueenergynonMetallicMineralsEnergyBituminous sandstone/limestone, oil shale; Coal; Lignite; Peat; Thorium; Uranium
EndusePotentialValuespecialityAndOtherIndustrialRocksAndMineralsnonMetallicMineralsSpeciality and other industrialRocks and mineralsAbrasives: garnet, staurolite, corundum; Asbestos (antophyllite, chrysotile, crocidolite); Attapulgite, sepiolite (clay); Bentonite (clay); Limestone, calcite (filler); Diatomite (kieselguhr); Graphite; Mica; Perlite; Quartz (massive / block for ferrosilicon); Quartz, optical & piezoelectrical use; Silica sand; Talc, pyrophyllite; Vermiculite; Wollastonite
EndusePotentialValuemetalIndustry metal industryMetal ore directly used to produce metals and minerals used in their processing
EndusePotentialValueconstruction constructionMaterial used in the construction industry. Includes aggregate, dimension & ornamental stones (granite, gabbro, travertine, etc.), gypsum, anhydrite, cement limestone, limestone for lime, marble, sand and gravel.
EndusePotentialValueconstructionAggregatesconstructionconstruction aggregatesAny of several hard, inert materials, such as sand, gravel, slag, or crushed stone, used for mixing with a cementing or bituminous material to form concrete or asphalt or used alone, as in railroad ballast or graded fill. Excludes materials for cement making and plaster making.
EndusePotentialValuecementMakingMaterialconstructioncement-making materialMaterial directly used in the manufacture of cement or mortar.
EndusePotentialValueplasterAndPlasterBoardconstructionplaster and plaster boardMaterial directly used in the manufacture of a plaster or plasterboard.
EndusePotentialValuestructuralClayProductsconstructionstructural clay productsMaterial used as a raw material for the manufacture of structural clay products, i.e. Bricks, pipes and tiles.
EndusePotentialValuebuildingAndDimensionStoneconstructionbuilding and dimension stoneNatural Stone used in a block, flag or slate form for construction or decorative purposes, or artifacts, e.g. millstones.
EndusePotentialValueengineeringClayconstructionengineering clayClay or shale with particular properties, used for a civil engineering purpose other than as a fill, e.g. liner for landfill, flood defence
EndusePotentialValueindustrialMinerals industrialMineralsMaterial used in the manufacture of a product by an industrial process, or in the treatment of a product
EndusePotentialValueindustrialProductTreatmentindustrialMineralsindustrial product treatmentMaterial directly used in the treatment or enhancement of an industrial product, i.e. paper coatings.
EndusePotentialValuefoundryMineralsindustrialMineralsfoundry mineralsMaterial used as a part of the process in the manufacture of a metallic product.
EndusePotentialValueabrasiveMineralsindustrialMineralsabrasive mineralsNaturally occurring abrasives.
EndusePotentialValueglassManufacturingMineralsindustrialMineralsglass manufacturing mineralsGeneral use in the glass making industry, including fluxes.
EndusePotentialValuedrillingMineralsindustrialMineralsdrilling mineralsMaterial has potential for use in borehole drilling processes, e.g. as a mud weight or viscosity additive.
EndusePotentialValueenergyMinerals energy mineralsRaw materials in the energy industry. Includes oil, gas, bituminous sandstone and limestone, oil shale, coal, lignite, peat, thorium, uranium.
EndusePotentialValuefossilFuelUseenergyMineralsfossil fuel useMaterial has potential for energy production through burning
EndusePotentialValuenuclearEnergySourceenergyMineralsnuclear energy sourceMaterial has potential for energy production through use in nuclear reactor
EndusePotentialValuemineralSpecimens mineral specimensResource end use is for sale to collectors and for education
EndusePotentialValueagriculture agricultureMaterial used for agricultural or horticultural purposes as a fertiliser, soil conditioner or improver.
EndusePotentialValueagriculturaLimeagricultureagricultural limeDirect application of chalk, limestone or dolomite for soil conditioning
EndusePotentialValuehorticulturalagriculturehorticulturalHorticultural uses e.g. sand for top dressing, peat
EndusePotentialValuelandscapingagriculturelandscapingSoil and aggregates used for landscaping
ExplorationActivityTypeValuecoreDrillingsubsurfaceExplorationcore drillingDrilling in order to collect intact rock sample cores, or to carry out a physical measurement or a geological observation. Can confirm results from obtained from percussion drilling.
ExplorationResultValuegeophysicalAnomaly geophysical anomalyArea where geophysical properties (e.g. radiometric, magnetic, electromagnetic, gravity) differ from surrounding areas and which may be the result of mineralisation.
ExplorationResultValuegeochemicalAnomaly geochemical anomalyArea where geochemical properties (e.g. single or multiple element concentrations or isotope ratios) differ from surrounding areas and which may be the result of mineralisation.
ExplorationResultValuenegativeFeasibilityStudy negative feasibility studyCompletion of an economic evaluation of the mineral project at a level sufficient for a feasbility study with a resulting determination that extraction is not reasonably justified. A Feasibility Study is a comprehensive technical and economic study of the selected development option for a mineral project that includes appropriately detailed assessments of all factors necessary to determine at the time of reporting whether extraction is reasonably justified (economically mineable).
ExplorationResultValuemineralResourceDefined mineral resource definedWork has been completed to identify a three dimensional zone of mineralization and estimate its tonnage and grade to the standard of a "mineral resource". Result allows definition of a 'Measured Mineral Resource' as defined by CIM (2010-11-27)
ExplorationResultValuemineralReserveDefined mineral reserve definedDefinition of a three dimensional body of mineralization in sufficient technical detail and accompanied by an economic evaluation so that the estimated tonnage and grade can be classified as a mineral reserve. A Mineral Reserve is the economically mineable part of a Measured or Indicated Mineral Resource demonstrated by at least a Preliminary Feasibility Study.
ImportanceValueveryLargeDeposit Very large depositSeveral commodities may be of interest inside a deposit. A deposit may be a very large deposit for one commodity (this commodity is the main one) and a different-sized deposit for some other commodities. Such a ranking is based on a statistical study of a large set of deposits throughout the world to ensure that it is valid. It is made using histograms allowing for each commodity to define class boundaries. This classification is based on the potential or endowment: reserves + resources.
ImportanceValuelargeDeposit Large depositSeveral commodities may be of interest inside a deposit. A deposit may be a large deposit for one commodity (this commodity is the main one) and a different-sized deposit for some other commodities. Such a ranking is based on a statistical study of a large set of deposits throughout the world to ensure that it is valid. It is made using histograms allowing for each commodity to define class boundaries. This classification is based on the potential or endowment: reserves + resources.
ImportanceValuemediumSizedDeposit Medium sized depositSeveral commodities may be of interest inside a deposit. A deposit may be a medium-sized deposit for one commodity (this commodity is the main one) and a different-sized deposit for some other commodities. Such a ranking is based on a statistical study of a large set of deposits throughout the world to ensure that it is valid. It is made using histograms allowing for each commodity to define class boundaries. This classification is based on the potential or endowment: reserves + resources.
ImportanceValuesmallDeposit Small depositSeveral commodities may be of interest inside a deposit. A deposit may be a small deposit for one commodity (this commodity is the main one) and a different-sized deposit for some other commodities. Such a ranking is based on a statistical study of a large set of deposits throughout the world to ensure that it is valid. It is made using histograms allowing for each commodity to define class boundaries. This classification is based on the potential or endowment: reserves + resources.
ImportanceValueoccurrence OccurrenceAny ore or economic mineral in any concentration found in bedrock or as float; esp. a valuable mineral in sufficient concentration to suggest further exploration.
MineralOccurrenceTypeValuemineralizedZone mineralized zoneA coherent zone of mineralized material within a mineral deposit. This may correspond to a lode, or vein, or orebody, or any similar subdivision of a larger mineral deposit.
MineralOccurrenceTypeValueproject projectAn informal grouping of mineral deposits that is commonly used by mining or exploration companies in reporting exploration results, resources/reserves, and production figures.
MiningActivityTypeValuehydraulicMining hydraulic miningThe recovery of desired material, generally in open pits, by means of strong jets of water
MiningActivityTypeValuesubsurfaceMining subsurface miningMining beneath the surface of the earth.
MiningActivityTypeValueboreholeMiningsubsurfaceMiningborehole miningA mineral extraction activity in which ore is extracted from the subsurface via underground mine workings (adits, shafts, drifts, stopes, etc.).
MiningActivityTypeValueunderwaterMining underwater miningExtraction of a mineral product in the liquid or gaseous state from the Earth's crust by means of boreholes. Boreholes are used for mining petroleum, and for the extraction of liquid solutions of salt, sulfur, etc.
MiningActivityTypeValuesubaqueousVacuumPumpingunderwaterMiningsubaqueous vacuum pumpingMining of underwater mineral deposits at or close to the sea, lake or river bed. May be from floating or land-based platforms involving dredging or vaccuum pumping or may use remote operated vehicle (submersible).
MiningActivityTypeValuesubaqueousRemoteOperatedVehicleunderwaterMiningsubaqueous remote operated vehiclenot defined
MiningActivityTypeValuedredgeMiningunderwaterMiningdredge miningExcavation of underwater mineral resources by floating equipment. Dredging systems are classified as mechanical or hydraulic, depending on the method of material transport.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuesortingphysicalTreatmentsortingProcesses that operate on particulate material to concentrate a desired component and separate it from waste material.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuemanualSortingphysicalTreatmentManual sorting (handpicking)Sorting a coarse material into two or more classes on the basis of physical characteristics: appearance, colour, conductivity, fluorescence, etc., manually.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueautomaticSortingphysicalTreatmentAutomatic sortingSorting a coarse material into two or more classes on the basis of physical characteristics: appearance, colour, conductivity, fluorescence, etc. This process may take place automatically by machines.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuegravimetricSortingphysicalTreatmentGravimetric methods (density, shape)Process in which the valuable particles are separated from the gangue by virtue of the difference between their specific volumes. This causes their settling rates within a medium - air or water - to be different. This process is therefore affected by particle size.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuestratificationJigphysicalTreatmentStratification (jig)Jig: Gravity separation concentrator in which the pulp is subjected to an alternating vertical motion that is imparted: (1) either by an alternating liquid stream moved by a piston, a diaphragm, or any other device, through a fixed perforated plate. There are two compartments: one housing the piston, the diaphragm, or the compressed air, and the other where the actual concentration takes place; (2) or by altering vertical or inclined motion of the grate on which the feed is resting (e.g. Hancock jig).
ProcessingActivityTypeValuesluiceConcentrationphysicalTreatmentsluice concentrationSluice: Gravity concentration units consisting of a slanting trough fitted with riffles or with moquette to trap the denser particles. Cone classifier: Hydraulic classifier consisting of pyramidal hopper with bottom apex. Spiral concentrator: Concentration device consisting of a spiral-shaped trough, along which the pulp flows. The finer and lighter particles are carried towards the outer edge, whereas the denser particles move towards the helix axis, where they are removed.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuegravitySeparationTablephysicalTreatmentgravity separation tableGravity concentration consisting of an inclined desk fitted with riffles. Its shaking promotes the segregation of different dense particles and keeps them moving across the deck in different angles down to the discharge end. A transverse water stream helps to separate the particles.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuecentrifugalGravitySeparationphysicalTreatmentcentrifugal gravity separationClassifying or thickening machine in which centrifugal force is of the essence: it causes the particles in the pulp movement against the sides of a bowl or basket.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueheavyMediumSeparationphysicalTreatmentheavy medium separationConcentration process based on the ability of denser particles to float to the surface and lighter particles to sink to the bottom of a medium when the specific gravity of the medium is between those of the denser and lighter particles.. The medium may be a dense liquid, a solution, or a finely ground material in suspension in water (heavy media). The process may static. It takes place in a drum or a tank. It may be dynamic. It is then effected in a cyclone. The lighter product is sometimes referred to as float, the heavier as sink. This is a gravity separation process.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuemagneticElecromagneticSeparationphysicalTreatmentmagnetic elecromagnetic separationSeparation process based on the difference in magnetic susceptibility between minerals. The intensity may be low, medium or high. Sometimes a high-gradient magnetic field is used. The magnetic field may be produced either by a series of permanent magnets or by electromagnets. The magnetic field is used either to deviate the magnetic particles from their course, or to lift the magnetic particles.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueelectrostaticSeparationphysicalTreatmentElectrostatic separationSeparation process based on the difference in electrical conductivity between the various minerals.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueeddyCurrentSeparatorphysicalTreatmenteddy current separatorEddy (or Foucault) currents: The principle is that an electric charge is induced into a conductor by changes in magnetic flux cutting through it. Such changes in magnetic flux can be achieved by rotating permanent magnets past an electrical conductor. The effect of such currents is to induce a secondary magnetic field around the non-ferrous particle. This field reacts with the magnetic field of the rotor, resulting in a combined driving and repelling force which literally ejects the conducted particle from the stream of mixed materials. This repulsion force in combination with the product belt speed and the optimization of the product splitter plate provides the means for an effective separation.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueliquidSolidSeparationphysicalTreatmentLiquid-solid separationIncludes: Thickening: Process in which a portion of the liquid of a pulp is removed to thicken the latter. Mostly achieved by decantation, but sometimes by filtration or cycloning. Decantation (clarification, dewatering): (1) Spontaneous separation by gravity of a solid phase in suspension within a liquid (settling), or of non-miscible liquids. (2) When solids are settling out they always retain some trapped liquid. But, as the settled phase has a higher solids percentage than the initial pulp, the end result is a thickening. Filtration: Process of separating solid particles in suspension in a fluid by forcing the latter to pass through some porous material (fabric, diatom layer, ...) that retains the solid particles.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuecomminutionphysicalTreatmentComminutionBreaking solid particles to reduce their sizes; general term encompassing crushing and grinding (there is no clearcut boundary between these processes). Synonymous with fragmentation.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueparticleSizingphysicalTreatmentParticle sizingClassification: separation of the pieces of a fragmented material into several classes, according to a particular criterion: size, density, equivalence, shape, etc. It is used more specifically with size separation. Screening/sieving: sizing by means of screens or sieves: particle with a size larger than the screen or sieve opening are said to form the oversize fraction, the others form the undersize fraction.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueflotationphysicalChemicalTreatmentFlotationProcess in which particles are separated according to their tendency to adhere more or less to air bubbles to form a mineralized froth: this feature is linked to the natural or designed hydrophobic property of the particle surface.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueagglomerationphysicalChemicalTreatmentAgglomeration Agglomeration: process designed to bind together finely ground particles. The result is an agglomerate or a sinter. Pelletization: process designed to produce spherical agglomerates of a few mm diameter, called pellets, through a rotating device (balling drum, balling disc) after the addition of some binding material (swelling clay, lime, cement, etc.) and water.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuecoagulationphysicalChemicalTreatmentCoagulationIn a dispersed system, particles of all species can be aggregated into larger structures by several mechanisms. Aggregation, based on reducing inter-particle repulsion forces, is known as coagulation and the aggregates are called coagula. If coagulation is induced by a polymer-bridging action, the process is called flocculation and the aggregates are called flocs. When aggregation is achieved as a result of the action of an immersible bridging liquid, such as oil, the process is called agglomeration and the aggregates are referred to as agglomerates. The mechanisms include both those in coagulation (i.e. action of electrolytes) and bridging flocculation by either inorganic polymers or by precipitating metal hydroxides. The latter is known as sweep flocculation.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueflocculationphysicalChemicalTreatmentFlocculationFlocculation is the coagulation between particles induced by the bridging action of long-chain organic polymers.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuehydrometallurgychemicalTreatmentHydrometallurgyHydrometallurgy is part of the field of extractive metallurgy involving the use of aqueous chemistry for the recovery of metals from ores, concentrates, and recycled or residual materials. Hydrometallurgy is typically divided into three general areas: leaching, solution concentration and purification, and metal recovery.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueleachingchemicalTreatmentLeachingAction of chemical reagents on a material resulting in the dissolution of some of its elements.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuesolventExtractionchemicalTreatmentSolvent extractionExtraction with a solvent. This may be achieved on: (1) the soluble part of a solid matter (solid/liquid extraction), (2) the elements within a liquid phase (liquid/liquid extraction).
ProcessingActivityTypeValuecementationchemicalTreatmentCementationIn metallurgy, cementation is a process in which ions are reduced to zero valence at a solid metallic interface
ProcessingActivityTypeValueelectrolysischemicalTreatmentElectrolysisElectrolysis: Electrowinning and electrorefining respectively involve the recovery and purification of metals using electrodeposition of metals at the cathode, and either metal dissolution or a competing oxidation reaction at the anode.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueadsorptionchemicalTreatmentAdsorptionTaking up of ions, molecules or colloids on the surface of a material.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuedistillationchemicalTreatmentDistillationDistillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatilities of components in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuecrystallizationchemicalTreatmentCrystallizationCrystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas. Crystallization is also a chemical solid-liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs. In chemical engineering crystallization occurs in a crystallizer. Crystallization is therefore an aspect of precipitation, obtained through a variation of the solubility conditions of the solute in the solvent, as compared to precipitation due to chemical reaction.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueprecipitationchemicalTreatmentPrecipitationPrecipitation in hydrometallurgy involves the chemical precipitation of either metals and their compounds or of the contaminants from aqueous solutions. Precipitation will proceed when, through reagent addition, evaporation, pH change or temperature manipulation, any given species exceeds its limit of solubility. In order to improve efficiency in downstream processes, seeding to initiate crystallization is often used.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueevaporationchemicalTreatmentEvaporationDrying is thermal removal of liquid moisture (not chemically bound) from a material. Drying is usually accomplished by contacting the moist solids with hot combustion gases generated by burning fossil fuels. In some cases, heat for drying can be provided by hot air or inert gas that has been indirectly heated. The amount of heat required for a given drying operation corresponds to the heat required to vaporize the liquid moisture, the heat required to raise the temperature of the products (dry solids and water vapor) to the final drying temperature, and heat required to offset radiant heat losses. Usually the drying temperature is set at a nominal value above the boiling point of water, often about 120°C. In special cases, such as in the drying of certain water-soluble salts, higher drying temperatures are required. In salt drying, the feed moisture is saturated with dissolved salts, which alters the boiling point and requires higher drying temperatures. Drying of moist solids is carried out in several types of industrial dryers, including rotary dryers, fluidized bed dryers, and flash dryers. Another type of drying, called spray drying, is carried out when the material to be dried is completely dissolved in aqueous solution. The solution is sprayed (usually through a specially designed nozzle) into a heated chamber and as the water is evaporated, solids crystallize. The water vapor is exhausted from the dryer, and dry solids are collected, usually in a conical section of the dryer. Solid material produced from a spray dryer often has special particle size and shape characteristics, which may be controlled by the concentration of dissolved material in the solution, and the design of the atomizing spray nozzle.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuepyrometallurgychemicalTreatmentPyrometallurgyPyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy. It consists of the thermal treatment of minerals and metallurgical ores and concentrates to bring about physical and chemical transformations in the materials to enable recovery of valuable metals. Pyrometallurgical treatment may produce saleable products such as pure metals, or intermediate compounds or alloys, suitable as feed for further processing. Examples of elements extracted by pyrometallurgical processes include the oxides of less reactive elements like Fe, Cu, Zn, Chromium, Tin, Manganese.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueroastingchemicalTreatmentRoastingRoasting is a step in the processing of certain ores. More specifically, roasting is a metallurgical process involving gas–solid reactions at elevated temperatures with the goal of purifying the metal component(s). Roasting consists of thermal gas–solid reactions, which can include oxidation, reduction, chlorination, sulfation, and pyrohydrolysis. In roasting, the ore or ore concentrate is treated with very hot air.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roasting_(metallurgy)
ProcessingActivityTypeValuesmeltingchemicalTreatmentSmeltingSmelting is a form of extractive metallurgy; its main use is to produce a metal from its ore. Smelting involves thermal reactions in which at least one product is a molten phase. Metal oxides can then be smelted by heating with coke or charcoal (forms of carbon), a reducing agent that liberates the oxygen as carbon dioxide leaving a refined mineral. Carbonate ores are also smelted with charcoal, but are sometimes need to be calcined first. Other materials may need to be added as flux, aiding the melting of the oxide ores and assisting in the formation of a slag, as the flux reacts with impurities, such as silicon compounds. Smelting usually takes place at a temperature above the melting point of the metal, but processes vary considerably according to the ore involved and other matters.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueburningchemicalTreatmentBurningThe utilization of coal-oil agglomerates in the recovery of gold is based on the natural hydrophobicity/oleophilicity of gold, a property which according to the consensus of most surface chemistry experts is brought about by the ease by which gold surface becomes contaminated, though is possible to recover gold by agglomerating them with oil, the amount of gold in the ore is usually small that there is insufficient gold particles to form agglomerates. Thus, the need to use other hydrophobic materials (e.g. coal) to either form agglomerates together with gold or act as a carrier of gold particles. Agglomerates are prepared in a previous step and then added to the ore pulp in a second step. The gold particles, being oilfilic, penetrate into the agglomerates. In a continuous operation the agglomerates would be maintained in contacting tanks until they reach a pre-determined gold content. The tailings are discarded by means of a screen situated at the upper part of the tanks. The recovery of gold from agglomerates is obtained in a later step by burning the agglomerates and then separating the gold from the ashes.
ProcessingActivityTypeValuecalciningchemicalTreatmentCalciningA more general definition is “Calcination (also referred to as calcining) is a thermal treatment process in presence of air applied to ores and other solid materials to bring about a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of a volatile fraction. The calcination process normally takes place at temperatures below the melting point of the product materials. Calcination is to be distinguished from roasting, in which more complex gas–solid reactions take place between the furnace atmosphere and the solids.
ProcessingActivityTypeValueincinerationchemicalTreatmentIncinerationA method used for drying and reducing sludge volume and weight. Since incineration requires auxiliary fuel to obtain and maintain high temperature and to evaporate the water contained in the incoming sludge, concentration techniques should be applied before incineration. Sludge incineration is a two-step process involving drying and combustion after a preceding dewatering process, such as filters, drying beds, or centrifuges.
MineralDepositTypeValue bauxite bauxitebauxite
MineralDepositTypeValue calcrete calcretecalcrete
MineralDepositTypeValue gossan gossangossan
MineralDepositTypeValue laterite lateritelaterite
MineralDepositTypeValue phosphorite phosphoritephosphorite
MineralDepositTypeValue anthropogenicDeposit anthropogenic depositanthropogenic deposit
MineralDepositTypeValue eluvialPlacer eluvial placereluvial placer
MineralDepositTypeValue alluvialPlacer alluvial placeralluvial placer
MineralDepositTypeValue shorelineOrMarinePlacer shoreline / marine placershoreline / marine placer
MineralDepositTypeValue eolianPlacer eolian placereolian placer
MineralDepositTypeValue paleoplacer paleoplacerpaleoplacer
MineralDepositTypeValue bandedIronFormation banded iron formation (BIF)banded iron formation (BIF)
MineralDepositTypeValue ooliticIronOrIronstone oolitic iron / ironstoneoolitic iron / ironstone
MineralDepositTypeValue sedimentaryManganese sedimentary manganesesedimentary manganese
MineralDepositTypeValue phosphorite phosphoritephosphorite
MineralDepositTypeValue stratiformBarite stratiform baritestratiform barite
MineralDepositTypeValue evaporite evaporiteevaporite
MineralDepositTypeValue carbonateHosted carbonate-hosted carbonate-hosted
MineralDepositTypeValue sandstoneHosted sandstone-hosted sandstone-hosted
MineralDepositTypeValue shaleHosted shale-hosted (incl. SEDEX)shale-hosted (incl. SEDEX)
MineralDepositTypeValue layeredComplex layered complexlayered complex
MineralDepositTypeValue maficToUltramaficEffusiveVolcanism mafic to ultramafic effusive volcanismmafic to ultramafic effusive volcanism
MineralDepositTypeValue maficToUltramaficIntrusion mafic to ultramafic intrusion mafic to ultramafic intrusion
MineralDepositTypeValue komatiite komatiite komatiite
MineralDepositTypeValue anorthosite anorthosite anorthosite
MineralDepositTypeValue ophiolite ophiolite ophiolite
MineralDepositTypeValue graniticIgneousRocksAndPegmatites granitic igneous rocks and pegmatitesgranitic igneous rocks and pegmatites
MineralDepositTypeValue greisen greisengreisen
MineralDepositTypeValue porphyry porphyry porphyry
MineralDepositTypeValue ironOxideCopperGold iron oxide copper gold (IOCG)iron oxide copper gold (IOCG)
MineralDepositTypeValue ironOxideApatite iron oxide apatite (IOA)iron oxide apatite (IOA)
MineralDepositTypeValue skarnAndCarbonateReplacement skarn and carbonate replacementskarn and carbonate replacement
MineralDepositTypeValue hornfels hornfels hornfels
MineralDepositTypeValue polymetallicManto polymetallic mantopolymetallic manto
MineralDepositTypeValue CarlinTypeCarbonateHosted Carlin-type carbonate-hosted Au-AgCarlin-type carbonate-hosted Au-Ag
MineralDepositTypeValue kimberliteAndLamproite kimberlite and lamproite kimberlite and lamproite
MineralDepositTypeValue carbonatite carbonatite carbonatite
MineralDepositTypeValue unsaturatedAndSaturatedSyeniticAlkaliGraniticIgneousRocksPegmatites unsaturated and saturated syenitic and alkali granitic igneous rocks and pegmatites unsaturated and saturated syenitic and alkali granitic igneous rocks and pegmatites
MineralDepositTypeValue lowSulphidation low-sulphidation low-sulphidation
MineralDepositTypeValue highSulphidation high-sulphidation high-sulphidation
MineralDepositTypeValue maficVolcanismMassiveSulphide mafic volcanism Cu–Zn massive sulphide depositsmafic volcanism Cu–Zn massive sulphide deposits
MineralDepositTypeValue bimodalFelsicVolcanism bimodal and felsic volcanism Cu-Pb-Zn VMS and transitional magmatic depositsbimodal and felsic volcanism Cu-Pb-Zn VMS and transitional magmatic deposits
MineralDepositTypeValue veinPolymetallic vein, including polymetallic and 5 element vein (Bi, Co, Ni, Ag, U) vein, including polymetallic and 5 element vein (Bi, Co, Ni, Ag, U)
MineralDepositTypeValue orogenicGold orogenic goldorogenic gold
MineralDepositTypeValue aggregate aggregateaggregate
MineralDepositTypeValue dimensionStone dimension stonedimension stone
MineralDepositTypeValue organic organicorganic
MineralDepositTypeValue nonOrganic non-organic (incl. U)non-organic (incl. U)
MineralDepositTypeValue meteoriteImpact meteorite impactmeteorite impact

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